Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 15 of 15 items for

  • Author or Editor: John E. Oliver x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

SUMMARY

Evaluation of pudendal reflexes and effects of pudendal branch conditioning on those reflexes was carried out in 2 studies. In the first study of pudendal reflexes, 20 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the anal branch, urethral branch, and distal trunk (consisting primarily of the dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris) of the pudendal nerve. Reflexes were tested in all possible ipsilateral and contralateral test-response combinations. Latency values and effects of increasing stimulus rate on response amplitude were recorded. Reflexes were detected in all combinations, with response latencies between 6.3 and 13.0 ms. Response amplitudes were diminished at stimulus rates of 3 to 5 Hz, and responses were apparently abolished at 4 to 16 Hz, suggesting that pudendal reflexes are polysynaptic.

In the second study of conditioning effects, 9 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent preparation similar to that for study 1. A train of conditioning stimuli was applied to branches of the pudendal nerve prior to attempting to induce reflex responses, as performed in study 1. Conditioning completely abolished reflex responses for a period of 70 to 130 ms. Reflex responses were diminished in amplitude, compared with those observed during preconditioning trials, for 180 to 300 ms after conditioning.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a model of low urethral pressure incontinence and compare the relative contributions of the pudendal and hypogastric nerves with urethral function by performing selective neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

Animals—19 healthy Foxhounds.

Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups. The first group (10 dogs) underwent bilateral hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy and subsequent bilateral pudendal neurectomy. The second group (9 dogs) underwent bilateral pudendal neurectomy and subsequent hypogastric neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy. Urethral pressure profilometry and leak point pressure (LPP) tests were performed before and after each neurectomy.

Results—Before surgery, mean ± SD LPP and maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in all dogs were 169.3 ± 24.9 cm H2O and 108.3 ± 19.3 cm H2O, respectively; these values decreased to 92.3 ± 27 cm H2O and 60.7 ± 20.0 cm H2O, respectively, after both selective neurectomy surgeries. There was a progressive decline of LPP after each neurectomy; however, MUCP decreased only after pudendal neurectomy. Fifteen dogs had mild clinical signs of urinary incontinence. All dogs appeared to have normal bladder function as indicated by posturing to void and consciously voiding a full stream of urine. Urinary tract infection did not develop in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypogastric and pudendal neurectomy and ovariohysterectomy caused a maximum decrease in LPP, whereas pudendal neurectomy caused a maximum decrease in MUCP.

Impact on Human Medicine—This model may be useful for evaluation of treatments for improving urinary control in postmenopausal women. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:695–699)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a stress leak point pressure (LPP) test for dogs, determine LPP for continent female dogs, and determine urethral pressure profile (UPP) values for nonanesthetized, continent female dogs.

Animals

22 continent female dogs weighing from 21 to 29 kg.

Procedure

A standard UPP test and a modification of the LPP test used in women were performed on all dogs. On 3 occasions, dogs underwent UPP testing while awake. They then were anesthetized with propofol, and LPP was measured at bladder volumes of 75. 100, and 150 ml. For LPP tests, abdominal pressure was applied by inflating a human blood pressure cuff placed around the dog’s abdomen. LPP were recorded through a urethral catheter (bladder LPP) and a rectal balloon catheter (abdominal LPP).

Results

Mean ± SD and median maximal urethral closure pressure was 110.1 ± 20.2 and 109.0 cm water, respectively. Mean bladder LPP for the 75, 100, and 150 ml bladder volumes was 172.4 cm water. Significant differences among LPP for the 3 bladder volumes were not detected.

Conclusions

Stress LPP can be recorded in female dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:676–678)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and cysts.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment.

Procedure

Partial prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually Intact dogs (n = 12) also were castrated.

Results

None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and 1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy. Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:868–871)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association