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- Author or Editor: Inge D. Wijnberg x
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Objective—To investigate the effects of acute exercise and long-term training on Na+,K+-ATPase content, mRNA isoforms, and protein concentration in equine muscle.
Procedures—Horses performed a bout of exercise on a treadmill before and after 18 weeks of combined interval and endurance training. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle (VLM) and pectoralis descendens muscle (PDM) before and after exercise. The Na+,K+-ATPase content, mRNA isoforms, and protein concentrations were determined by use of [3H]ouabain binding, real-time PCR assay, and western blotting, respectively.
Results—6 Na+,K+-ATPase mRNA isoforms were present in equine muscle, but only A2 and B1 proteins were detected. Exercise before training resulted in increases of mRNA isoforms A1, A2, A3, and B2 in VLM and A1 and B3 in PDM. Training increased resting values for mRNA isoforms A3 and B1 in VLM and B3 in PDM. The Na+,K+-ATPase, [3H]ouabain binding, and proteins of mRNA A2 and B1 increased in VLM, whereas in PDM, only A2 protein increased as a result of training. After training, effects of strenuous exercise on mRNA expression were no longer detectable.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine muscle contained all Na+,K+-ATPase mRNA isoforms, but only A2 and B1 proteins could be detected. Expression of these isoforms changed as a result of strenuous exercise and long-term training, representing an adaptive response. Determination of Na+,K+-ATPase gene expression may be relevant for understanding alterations in excitability during neuromuscular diseases.
Objective—To determine the effects of short-term IV administration of hydrocortisone or equine growth hormone (eGH) or long-term IM administration of eGH to horses on tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin.
Animals—5 Standardbreds and 4 Dutch Warmblood horses.
Procedure—The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was used to examine sensitivity of peripheral tissues to exogenous insulin 24 hours after administration of a single dose of hydrocortisone (0.06 mg/kg), eGH (20 µg/kg), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and after long-term administration (11 to 15 days) of eGH to horses. The amounts of metabolized glucose (M) and plasma insulin concentration (I) were determined.
Results—Values for M and the M-to-I ratio were significantly higher 24 hours after administration of a single dose of hydrocortisone than after single-dose administration of eGH or saline solution. After long-term administration of eGH, basal I concentration was increased and the mean M-to-I ratio was 22% lower, compared with values for horses treated with saline solution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in M and the M-to-I ratio after a single dose of hydrocortisone imply that short-term hydrocortisone treatment increases glucose use by, and insulin sensitivity of, peripheral tissues. Assuming a single dose of hydrocortisone improves sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, it may be an interesting candidate for use in reducing insulin resistance in peripheral tissues of horses with several disease states. In contrast, long-term administration of eGH decreased tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin associated with hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, increased concentrations of growth hormone may contribute to insulin resistance in horses with various disease states. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1907–1913)
Objective—To evaluate alterations in skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism during exercise and training by measuring changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations in Standardbreds.
Animals—10 Standardbred geldings with a mean ± SD age of 20 ± 2 months and weight of 384 ± 42 kg.
Procedures—In a 32-week longitudinal study, training on a treadmill was divided into 4 phases as follows: phase 1, acclimatization for 4 weeks; phase 2, 18 weeks with alternating endurance and high-intensity exercise training; phase 3, increased training volume and intensity for another 6 weeks; and phase 4, deconditioning for 4 weeks. In phase 3, horses were randomly assigned to 2 groups as follows: control horses (which continued training at the same level as in phase 2) and high-intensity exercise trained horses. At the end of each phase, a standardized exercise test (SET) was performed. Plasma acylcarnitine, fatty acids, and lactic acid and serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentrations were assessed before and at different time points after each SET.
Results—Plasma lactic acid, total nonesterified fatty acids, 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, and acetylcarnitine (C2-carnitine) concentrations significantly increased during SETs, whereas serum BHBA, plasma propionylcarnitine (C3-carnitine), and plasma butyryl- and isobutyrylcarnitine (C4-carnitine) concentrations decreased significantly, compared with those before SETs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings indicated that the plasma acylcarnitine profile in horses likely reflects skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism following exercise, thereby providing a possible practical method to investigate potential disorders in carnitine metabolism in horses with myopathy.