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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether joint lavage performed simultaneously with IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) reduces the effectiveness of IVRLP and to compare 2 types of tourniquets used for this procedure in horses.

Animals—11 adult horses.

Procedures—2 groups of 6 horses were tested by use of a pneumatic or an Esmarch tourniquet (1 horse was tested twice [once in each group]). Standing IVRLP with amikacin (500 mg) was performed for 30 minutes. Simultaneously, the metacarpophalangeal joint was lavaged with 2 L of lactated Ringer's solution and the egress fluids were collected. Samples of the distal interphalangeal joint synovial fluid and blood from the digital and jugular veins were collected at set time intervals. Amikacin concentrations in all fluids were determined via fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—Less amikacin was measured in the systemic circulation with the Esmarch tourniquet than with the pneumatic tourniquet. Amikacin concentrations in the synovial fluid from the distal interphalangeal joints of the Esmarch tourniquet group ranged from 45.1 to 1,968 μg/mL and in the pneumatic tourniquet group ranged from 1.7 to 92.3 μg/mL after 30 minutes of IVRLP. Total loss of amikacin in the egress fluids from the joint lavage ranged from < 1.36 to 7.72 mg for the Esmarch tourniquet group and from < 1.20 to 1.75 mg for the pneumatic tourniquet group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On standing horses, IVRLP performed simultaneously with joint lavage resulted in negligible loss of amikacin in the egress lavage fluids. The Esmarch tourniquet was more effective in preventing loss of amikacin from the distal portion of the limb, easier to use, and less expensive than the pneumatic tourniquet.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of multiple hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP) sterilizations on the rate of closure of ameroid constrictors.

Sample—Thirty-six 5.0-mm ameroid constrictors.

Procedures—Ameroid constrictors were randomly allocated to 6 groups. Each group underwent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 HPGP sterilizations. Ameroid constrictors were then incubated for 35 days in canine plasma and digitally imaged at predetermined times during incubation. One individual, who was unaware of the group to which each ameroid constrictor was assigned, measured the lumen area of the constrictor on each digital image. Mean lumen area was compared among groups.

Results—No ameroid constrictors were completely closed after 35 days of incubation in canine plasma. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ among constrictors that underwent 1, 2, and 3 sterilizations. Constrictors that underwent 4 sterilizations were closed significantly more than were those that underwent 1, 2, or 3 sterilizations. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ significantly between constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 sterilizations, although the final lumen areas for those constrictors were significantly smaller than those for constrictors that underwent 1, 2, 3, and 4 sterilizations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ameroid constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 HPGP sterilizations had a 9% to 12% decrease in lumen area, compared with that of constrictors that underwent ≤ 4 plasma sterilizations, and the use of such constrictors could increase the risk of portal hypertension and secondary acquired shunting or decrease the risk of persistent shunting.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether differences exist in the calculated intraocular lens (IOL) strengths of a population of adult horses and to assess the association between calculated IOL strength and horse height, body weight, and age, and between calculated IOL strength and corneal diameter.

Animals—28 clinically normal adult horses (56 eyes).

Procedures—Axial globe lengths and anterior chamber depths were measured ultrasonographically. Corneal curvatures were determined with a modified photokeratometer and brightness-mode ultrasonographic images. Data were used in the Binkhorst equation to calculate the predicted IOL strength for each eye. The calculated IOL strengths were compared with a repeated-measures ANOVA. Corneal curvature values (photokeratometer vs brightness-mode ultrasonographic images) were compared with a paired t test. Coefficients of determination were used to measure associations.

Results—Calculated IOL strengths (range, 15.4 to 30.1 diopters) differed significantly among horses. There was a significant difference in the corneal curvatures as determined via the 2 methods. Weak associations were found between calculated IOL strength and horse height and between calculated IOL strength and vertical corneal diameter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calculated IOL strength differed significantly among horses. Because only weak associations were detected between calculated IOL strength and horse height and vertical corneal diameter, these factors would not serve as reliable indicators for selection of the IOL strength for a specific horse.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the impact of prophylactic omeprazole and famotidine on the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) in dogs with cancer treated with single agent piroxicam.

ANIMALS

39 dogs with a cytologic or histologic diagnosis of cancer with no history of GI disease and received piroxicam.

PROCEDURES

A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was performed. All dogs received piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and either omeprazole (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), famoti-dine (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), or placebo (lactose; PO, q 12 h). Monthly assessments of GI AEs were performed and scored by using the Veterinary Comparative Oncology Group's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 1.1).

RESULTS

Compared with dogs in the placebo group, more dogs in the omeprazole group (84.6% vs 36.4%) and famotidine group (80.0% vs 36.4%) experienced GI AEs by day 56. The severity of GI AEs was higher in the omeprazole group, compared with the placebo group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Omeprazole was not helpful in reducing the frequency or severity of GI AEs and was associated with more frequent and severer GI AEs in dogs with cancer treated with single agent piroxicam. Proton-pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists should not be prescribed as prophylaxis with NSAIDs for dogs with cancer. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:385-391)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Animals—1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.

Procedures—Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results—2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs < 0.5 years old had higher odds of Toxocara and Ancylostoma parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate reproductive performance and productive longevity of dairy cows treated for left displaced abomasum (LDA) with 1 of 2 surgical techniques (omentopexy vs pyloro-omentopexy).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 87 Holstein cows that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy for LDA during a 5-year period.

PROCEDURES For each cow with LDA, the most recent date of calving, age at time of surgery, and surgical procedure were recorded. Dairy records of cows treated for LDA in the 5-year period were reviewed to determine their reproductive performance. Records available for up to 4 years after the last surgery (ie, when all treated cows had left the herd) were reviewed to determine cull dates and reasons for treated and untreated cows in the herd.

RESULTS Of the 87 cows with LDA, 58 underwent pyloro-omentopexy and 29 underwent omentopexy. Cows in the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ in age. Fifty-six cows completed > 1 subsequent lactation cycle after surgery. The median time that cows with LDA remained in the herd was 566 days (range, 24 to 1,838 days); the times for the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ. For treated and untreated cows, cull rates for reproductive failure or other problems were similar. Four (14%) omentopexy–treated cows and no pyloro-omentopexy–treated cows had a reoccurrence of LDA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that cows with LDA that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy had similar cull rates and reasons as unaffected herd mates over their productive time in the herd. Between the 2 treatment groups, only the LDA reoccurrence rate differed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Prednisone was given orally to 12 dogs daily for 35 days at an anti-inflammatory dosage (1.1 mg/kg of body weight in divided dose, q 12 h) to study its effect on thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) metabolism. Six of these dogs were surgically thyroidectomized (THX-Pred) and maintained in euthyroid status by daily SC injections of T4 to study peripheral metabolism while receiving prednisone; 6 dogs with intact thyroid gland (Pred) were given prednisone; and 6 additional dogs were given gelatin capsule vehicle as a control group (Ctrl).

Baseline T4 concentration after 4 weeks of treatment was not significantly different in dogs of the THX-Pred or Pred group (mean ± SEM, 2.58 ± 0.28 or 3.38 ± 0.58 μg/dl, respectively) vs dogs of the Ctrl group (2.12 ± 0.30 μg/dl). A supranormal response of T4 to thyrotropin was observed in dogs of the Pred group, but the T4 response to thyrotropinreleasing hormone was normal. Baseline T3 concentration in dogs of both steroid-treated groups was significantly (P< 0.05) lower after 2 and 4 weeks of prednisone administration vs pretreatment values, but normalized 2 weeks after prednisone was stopped. Free T3 (FT3) and T4 (FT4) fractions and absolute FT3 and FT4 concentrations were not altered by prednisone administration. Reverse T3 (rT3) concentration in vehicle-treated Ctrl dogs (26.6 ± 3.5 ng/dl) was not different from rT3 concentration in dogs of the THX-Pred (25.7 ± 4.3 ng/dl) and Pred (28.9 ± 3.8 ng/dl) groups after 4 weeks of medication. These data indicate that daily oral administration of such anti-inflammatory dose of prednisone for 1 month reduces baseline serum T3 concentration, does not alter serum T4 concentration, and enhances thyroidal sensitivity to thyrotropin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Design—Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

Animals—44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Procedures—Dogs received intra-articular injections of saline solution (0.2 mL/kg [0.09 mL/lb]), morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]), dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg [1.14 μg/lb]), or a combination of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg). Intra-articular injections of the stifle joint were performed after completion of the corrective osteotomy procedure, just prior to skin closure. Signs of pain were assessed every 2 hours thereafter on the basis of mean behavioral and objective pain scores. Dogs with pain scores exceeding predetermined thresholds were given hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], SC) as rescue analgesia.

Results—Time to rescue analgesia did not significantly differ between dogs that underwent TTA versus TPLO. No significant difference in time to rescue analgesia was found among dogs receiving intra-articular injections of dexmedetomidine (median, 6 hours; range, 2 to 10 hours), morphine (median, 7 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours), or saline solution (median, 5 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours). However, time to rescue analgesia for dogs receiving intra-articular injection of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination (median, 10 hours; range, 6 to 14 hours) was significantly longer than the time to rescue analgesia for other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular administration of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination provided longer-lasting postoperative analgesia, compared with either morphine or dexmedetomidine alone, in dogs undergoing TTA or TPLO. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1291–1297)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of bite distance of an interlocking horizontal mattress epitendinous suture (IHMES) from the repair site on tensile strength of canine tendon repairs.

SAMPLE

72 canine cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs).

PROCEDURES

Transverse tenotomy was performed, and SDFTs were repaired with a locking-loop construct (LL construct) or 3 LL constructs with IHMES suture bites placed 5 (LL + 5ES construct), 10 (LL + 10ES construct), or 15 (LL + 15ES construct) mm from the transection site (18 SDFTs/group). Constructs were loaded to failure. Load at 1− and 3-mm gapping, yield force, failure load, and failure mode were evaluated.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD yield force and failure load for LL constructs were significantly lower than for IHMES constructs. Load at 1− and 3-mm gapping was significantly higher for IHMES constructs. Increasing the bite distance significantly increased construct strength (134.4 ± 26.1 N, 151.0 ± 16.8 N, and 182.1 ± 23.6 N for LL + 5ES, LL + 10ES, and LL + 15ES constructs, respectively), compared with strength for the LL construct. Failure mode differed significantly among constructs when an IHMES was used.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Addition of an IHMES to an LL construct led to increased ultimate tensile strength by 2.5 times and significantly reduced gap formation. Increasing the IHMES bite distance increased yield force by 2.1, 2.3, and 2.7 times for bites placed 5, 10, and 15 mm from the tenotomy, respectively. Positioning an IHMES at a greater distance from the repair site provided superior biomechanical strength for tendon repairs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research