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Anesthesia was induced and maintained in 6 Suffolk wethers by continuous iv infusion of guaifenesin (50 mg/ml), ketamine (1 mg/ml), and xylazine (0.1 mg/ml) in 5% dextrose in water (triple drip) to assess the anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects. All sheep were positioned in right lateral recumbency. Dosages of triple drip used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia were 1.2 ± 0.02 ml/kg and 2.6 ml/kg/h, respectively. Lack of gross purposeful movement of sheep to electrical stimulation indicated that analgesia and muscular relaxation induced by triple trip were adequate for surgical procedures. Heart rates and arterial blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline values during a 1-hour period of anesthesia. Arterial blood pressures were measured indirectly, using an inflation cuff placed over the metatarsal artery at the heart level. Significant decrease in arterial partial pressure of O2 (Pao2 ), coupled with an increase in arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Paco2 ), from baseline values was observed throughout the course of the study. Decrease in Pao2 was observed concomitantly with significant (P < 0.05) increase in respiration rate. Changes in arterial blood gas tensions observed in this study were attributed to respiratory depressant effect induced by anesthetic drugs and right-to-left shunting, perfusion/ventilation mismatch, or both caused by right lateral recumbency. Administration of 100% O2 via the endotracheal tube reduced the magnitude of the decrease in Pao2 . All sheep recovered smoothly and stood within 96.3 ± 48.9 minutes after termination of triple drip administration

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether testicular needle biopsy is detrimental to testicular function in clinically normal bulls.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 mixed-breed mature bulls.

Procedure—A randomly selected testicle from each bull was biopsied with a 14-gauge needle biopsy instrument. Bulls were then evaluated over a 90-day period for changes in scrotal temperature and thermal patterns, ultrasonographic appearance, and quality of spermatozoa. At the end of the 90-day study, bulls were castrated, and testicles were examined grossly and histologically.

Results—Changes were detected in scrotal temperatures and thermal patterns and in the breeding soundness examination results during the first 2 weeks of the study. However, there were no long-term changes in semen quality over the course of the experiment. Hyperechoic areas were detected on ultrasonographic examination and corresponded to the areas of penetration by the biopsy instrument. Microscopic lesions that were indicative of testicular dysfunction were not found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that testicular biopsy is a safe procedure in bulls. Testicular biopsy could possibly be used to further examine bulls that have less than satisfactory results for breeding soundness examinations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:507–512)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Over an 8-year period, 8 beef cattle with mesothelioma were admitted to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine and the Louisiana State School of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination of affected tissues. Five bulls, 1 steer, and 2 cows were affected. Four of the bulls had scrotal swelling; 2 cows and 1 bull had ventral abdominal swelling. The peritoneal cavity was involved in 5 cases, the pleural cavity was affected in 2 cases, and in 2 cases, disease was apparently confined to the vaginal cavity. Of the 8 cattle, 6 died or were euthanatized; only cattle with tumor apparently confined to the vaginal cavity survived.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association