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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine after IV administration as an infusion or multiple doses in dogs by use of a von Frey (vF) device.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—In the first 2 crossover experiments of a 3-way crossover study, morphine or saline (0.9%) solution was administered via IV infusion. Loading doses and infusion rates were administered to attain targeted plasma concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40 ng/mL. In the third experiment, morphine (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IV every 2 hours for 3 doses. The vF thresholds were measured hourly for 8 hours. Plasma concentrations of morphine were measured by highpressure liquid chromatography.

Results—No significant changes in vF thresholds were observed during infusion of saline solution. The vF thresholds were significantly increased from 5 to 8 hours during the infusion phase, corresponding to targeted morphine plasma concentrations > 30 ng/mL and infusion rates ≥ 0.15 ± 0.02 mg/kg/h. The maximal effect (EMAX) was 78 ± 11% (percentage change from baseline), and the effective concentration to attain a 50% maximal response (EC50) was 29.5 ± 5.4 ng/mL. The vF thresholds were significantly increased from 1 to 7 hours during the multiple-dose phase; the EC50 and EMAX were 23.9 ± 4.7 ng/mL and 173 ± 58%, respectively. No significant differences in half-life, volume of distribution, or clearance between the first and last dose of morphine were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Morphine administered via IV infusion (0.15 ± 0.02 mg/kg/h) and multiple doses (0.5 mg/kg, IV, every 2 hours for 3 doses) maintained significant antinociception in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1968–1974)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To characterize the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose (6 mg/kg) of mavacoxib in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and to characterize any clinicopathologic effects with this medication and dose.

ANIMALS

Six healthy, 4-month-old New Zealand White rabbits (3 male, 3 female).

PROCEDURES

Before drug administration, clinicopathologic samples were collected for baseline data (CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and urinalysis including urine protein-to-creatinine ratio). All 6 rabbits received a single oral dose (6 mg/kg) of mavacoxib. Clinicopathologic samples were collected at set time intervals to compare with the baseline. Plasma mavacoxib concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non-compartmental methods.

RESULTS

After a single oral dose, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax; mean, range) was 854 (713–1040) ng/mL, the time to Cmax (tmax) was 0.36 (0.17–0.50) days, the area under the curve from 0 to the last measured time point (AUC0-last) was 2000 (1765–2307) days*ng/mL, the terminal half-life (t1/2) was 1.63 (1.30–2.26) days, and the terminal rate constant (λz) was 0.42 (0.31–0.53) days. All results for CBCs, serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratios remained within published normal reference intervals.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study determined that plasma concentrations reached target levels of 400 ng/mL for 48 hours in 3/6 rabbits at 6 mg/kg PO. In the remaining 3/6 rabbits, the plasma concentrations were 343–389 ng/mL at 48 hours, which is below the target concentration. Further research is needed to make a dosing recommendation, including a pharmacodynamic study and investigating pharmacokinetics at different doses and multiple doses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in rabbits after oral administration of single and multiple doses.

Animals—6 healthy rabbits.

Procedures—A single dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to the rabbits. After a 10-day washout period, meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered to rabbits every 24 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were obtained from rabbits at predetermined intervals during both treatment periods. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

Results—The mean peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity after administration of a single dose of meloxicam were 0.83 μg/mL and 10.37 h•μg/mL, respectively. After administration of meloxicam for 5 days, the mean peak plasma concentration was 1.33 μg/mL, and the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from the time of administration of the last dose to 24 hours after that time was 18.79 h•μg/mL. For single- and multiple-dose meloxicam experiments, the mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 6.5 and 5.8 hours and the mean terminal half-life was 6.1 and 6.7 hours, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma concentrations of meloxicam for rabbits in the present study were proportionally higher than those previously reported for rabbits receiving 0.2 mg of meloxicam/kg and were similar to those determined for animals of other species that received clinically effective doses. A dose of 1 mg/kg may be necessary to achieve clinically effective circulating concentrations of meloxicam in rabbits, although further studies are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after IV and PO administration to 6 healthy sheep.

Animals—6 healthy adult Dorset cross sheep (5 males and 1 female).

Procedures—Meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg, IV, or 1.0 mg/kg, PO) was administered in a randomized crossover design with a 10-day washout period. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times over 96 hours. Serum drug concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Computer software was used to estimate values of pharmacokinetic parameters through noncompartmental methods.

Results—Following IV administration (n = 5), the geometric mean (range) elimination half-life was 14.0 hours (10.5 to 17.0 hours), volume of distribution was 0.204 L/kg (0.171 to 0.272 L/kg), and clearance was 0.17 mL/min/kg (0.12 to 0.27 mL/min/kg). Following oral administration (n = 6), maximum serum concentration was 1.72 μg/mL (1.45 to 1.93 μg/mL), time to maximum serum concentration was 19.0 hours (12.0 to 24.0 hours), clearance per bioavailability was 0.22 mL/min/kg (0.16 to 0.30 mL/min/kg), and terminal half-life was 15.4 hours (13.2 to 17.7 hours). Bioavailability of orally administered meloxicam was calculated as 72% (40% to 125%; n = 5). No adverse effects were evident following meloxicam administration via either route.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg has good bioavailability with slow elimination kinetics in sheep. These data suggested that meloxicam may be clinically useful, provided the safety and analgesic efficacy of meloxicam as well as feed-related influences on its pharmacokinetics are established in ruminants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of dexamethasone administered PO as a solution or powder, compared with properties of dexamethasone solution administered IV, in apparently healthy horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Serum cortisol concentration for each horse was determined before each treatment (baseline values). Dexamethasone (0.05 mg/kg) was administered PO (in solution or powdered form) or IV (solution) to horses from which feed had or had not been withheld (unfed and fed horses, respectively). Each horse received all 6 treatments in random order at 2-week intervals; PO and IV administrations of dexamethasone were accompanied by IV or PO sham treatments, respectively. Plasma dexamethasone and serum cortisol concentrations were assessed at predetermined intervals.

Results—Maximum plasma dexamethasone concentration after PO administration of powdered dexamethasone in unfed horses was significantly higher than the maximum plasma concentration after PO administration of dexamethasone solution in unfed or fed horses. Mean bioavailability of dexamethasone ranged from 28% to 66% but was not significantly different among horses receiving either formulation PO in the unfed or fed state. After dexamethasone treatment PO or IV, serum cortisol concentrations were significantly less than baseline at 1 to 72 hours in unfed horses and at 2 to 48 hours in fed horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PO or IV administration of dexamethasone resulted in suppression of cortisol secretion in unfed and fed adult horses; the magnitude of suppression did not differ among treatment groups, and serum cortisol concentrations returned to baseline after 48 to 72 hours.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of a von Frey device as a mechanical nociceptive stimulus for evaluation of the antinociceptive effects of morphine in dogs and its potential application in the pharmacodynamic modeling of morphine in that species.

Animals—6 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—von Frey thresholds were measured in all dogs before and at intervals after they received no treatment (control dogs) and IV administration of morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg; treated dogs) in a crossover study. The von Frey device consisted of a rigid tip (0.5 mm in diameter) and an electronic load cell; the operator was unaware of recorded measurements.

Results—Application of the von Frey device was simple and well tolerated by all dogs and caused no apparent tissue damage. No significant changes in thresholds were detected in the control dogs at 8 hourly measurements, indicating a lack of acquired tolerance, learned aversion, or local hyperalgesia. When assessed as a group, treated dogs had significantly high thresholds for 4 hours following morphine administration, compared with baseline values; individually, thresholds decreased to baseline values within (mean ± SE) 2.8 ± 0.6 hours. The maximal effect (change from baseline values) was 213 ± 43%, and the plasma morphine concentration to achieve 50% maximal effect was 13.92 ± 2.39 ng/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that, in dogs, evaluation of the antinociceptive effect and pharmacodynamic modeling of a dose of morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg, IV) can be successfully achieved by use of a von Frey device. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1616–1622)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in a cold-water teleost species.

ANIMALS 10 healthy adult copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus), sex unknown.

PROCEDURES Cefovecin (16 mg/kg) was administered SC to the rockfish. Blood samples were collected at predetermined points for measurement of plasma cefovecin concentrations (3 samples/fish). Plasma cefovecin concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of naïve pooled analysis and compartmental modeling. Plasma protein binding of cefovecin was determined by ultrafiltration.

RESULTS Cefovecin administration appeared to be well tolerated by the rockfish. Pharmacokinetic analysis resulted in a maximum plasma concentration of 104.8 μg/mL at 2.07 hours after administration. Plasma terminal half-life was 32.5 hours, and area under the curve was 5,132 h·g/mL. Plasma protein binding was low (< 10%) for plasma concentrations of 10 and 100 μg of cefovecin/mL when assessed at 7.8° and 20°C. Plasma concentrations > 1 μg/mL persisted for the full 7-day follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE SC administration of cefovecin to copper rockfish at a dose of 16 mg/kg yielded plasma concentrations > 1 μg/mL that persisted to 7 days, but some interindividual variability was observed. The low degree of plasma protein binding but high circulating concentration of free drug may allow an extended administration interval in rockfish. Studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of this dose in rockfish.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols were followed. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive either tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) for analgesia after surgery. The modified Glasgow composite measure pain scale was used to assess signs of postoperative pain at predetermined intervals by an investigator who was blinded to treatment group. Scoring commenced with the second dose of the assigned study analgesic. Pain scores and rates of treatment failure (ie, dogs requiring rescue analgesia according to a predetermined protocol) were compared statistically between groups.

RESULTS 12 of 42 (29%; 5/19 in the hydrocodone-acetaminophen group and 7/23 in the tramadol group) dogs required rescue analgesic treatment on the basis of pain scores. Median pain score for the hydrocodone group was significantly lower than that of the tramadol group 2 hours after the second dose of study analgesic. The 2 groups had similar pain scores at all other time points.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, differences in pain scores between dogs that received hydrocodone-acetaminophen or tramadol were minor. The percentage of dogs with treatment failure in both groups was considered unacceptable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydrocodone (delivered in combination with acetaminophen) and tramadol in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) following TPLO with standard anesthetic and surgical protocols. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of study drugs and their metabolites over an 8-hour period beginning after the second dose of the study medication.

RESULTS The terminal half-life, maximum serum concentration, and time to maximum serum concentration for tramadol following naïve pooled modeling were 1.56 hours, 155.6 ng/mL, and 3.90 hours, respectively. Serum concentrations of the tramadol metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) were low. For hydrocodone, maximum serum concentration determined by naïve pooled modeling was 7.90 ng/mL, and time to maximum serum concentration was 3.47 hours. The terminal half-life for hydrocodone was 15.85 hours, but was likely influenced by delayed drug absorption in some dogs and may not have been a robust estimate. Serum concentrations of hydromorphone were low.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites were similar to those in previous studies. Serum tramadol concentrations varied widely, and concentrations of the active M1 metabolite were low. Metabolism of hydrocodone to hydromorphone in dogs was poor. Further study is warranted to assess variables that affect metabolism and efficacy of these drugs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of 2 commercially available extended-release theophylline formulations in dogs.

Design—Randomized 3-way crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—A single dose of aminophylline (11 mg·kg–1 [5 mg·lb–1], IV, equivalent to 8.6 mg of theophylline/kg [3.9 mg·lb–1]) or extended-release theophylline tablets (mean dose, 15.5 mg·kg–1 [7.04 mg·lb–1], PO) or capsules (mean dose, 15.45 mg·kg–1 [7.02 mg·lb–1], PO) was administered to all dogs. Blood samples were obtained at various times for 36 hours after dosing; plasma was separated and immediately frozen. Plasma samples were analyzed by use of fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—Administration of theophylline IV best fit a 2-compartment model with rapid distribution followed by slow elimination. Administration of extended-release theophylline tablets and capsules best fit a 1- compartment model with an absorption phase. Mean values for plasma terminal half-life, volume of distribution, and systemic clearance were 8.4 hours, 0.546 L·kg–1, and 0.780 mL·kg–1·min–1, respectively, after IV administration of theophylline. Systemic availability was > 80% for both oral formulations. Computer simulations predicted that extended-release theophylline tablets or capsules administered at a dosage of 10 mg·kg–1 (4.5 mg·lb–1), PO, every 12 hours would maintain plasma concentrations within the desired therapeutic range of 10 to 20 µg·mL–1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of these single-dose studies indicated that administration of the specific brand of extended-release theophylline tablets or capsules used in this study at a dosage of 10 mg·kg–1, PO, every 12 hours would maintain plasma concentrations within the desired therapeutic range (10 to 20 µg·mL–1) in healthy dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1113–1119)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association