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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on full-thickness skin grafts applied to fresh and granulating wounds of horses.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—On day 0, two 4-cm-diameter circular sections of full-thickness skin were removed from each of 2 randomly selected limbs of each horse, and two 4-cm-diameter circular skin grafts were harvested from the pectoral region. A skin graft was applied to 1 randomly selected wound on each limb, leaving the 2 nongrafted wounds to heal by second intention. On day 7, 2 grafts were harvested from the pectoral region and applied to the granulating wounds, and wounds grafted on day 0 were biopsied. On day 14, 1 wound was created on each of the 2 unwounded limbs, and the wounds that were grafted on day 7 were biopsied. All 4 ungrafted wounds (ie, 2 fresh wounds and 2 wounds with 1-week-old granulation beds) were grafted. The horses then received HBOT for 1 hour daily at 23 PSI for 7 days. On day 21, the grafts applied on day 14 were biopsied.

Results—Histologic examination of biopsy specimens revealed that grafts treated with HBOT developed less granulation tissue, edema, and neovascularization, but more inflammation. The superficial portion of the graft was also less viable than the superficial portion of those not treated with HBOT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of HBOT after full-thickness skin grafting of uncompromised fresh and granulating wounds of horses is not indicated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of the concurrent administration of 70% N2O on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for sevoflurane in dogs, the MAC derivative that blocks motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC derivative that blocks autonomic responses (MACBAR).

Animals—7 adult sexually intact male mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a face mask. Initially, the baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR for sevoflurane were determined by use of a noxious stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, and 10 milliseconds) applied subcutaneously over a midulnar region. Nitrous oxide (70%) was added to the breathing circuit, and MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were determined again. Percentage changes from the respective baseline concentrations for MAC, MACNM’ and MACBAR were calculated after the administration of N2O.

Results—Baseline median values for the MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR for sevoflurane were 1.75%, 2.00%, and 2.50%, respectively. Addition of 70% N2O significantly decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 24.4%, 25.0%, and 35.2%, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly from each other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Supplementation with 70% N2O caused a clinically important and significant decrease in the MAC, MACNM’ and MACBAR for sevoflurane in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether treatment with a preparation of Propionibacterium acnes would improve pregnancy and live foal rates in mares with persistent endometritis.

Design—Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—95 mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis.

Procedures—Mares were treated with P acnes or placebo (both administered IV) on days 0, 2, and 6. No attempt was made to alter additional treatments administered by attending veterinarians. Information on breeding history, physical examination findings, results of cytologic examination and microbial culture of uterine samples, additional treatments administered, breeding dates, results of pregnancy examinations, whether a live foal was produced, and reactions to treatment was recorded.

Results—In multivariate logistic regression models, mare age, year of entry into the study, and first breeding within 8 days after first treatment with P acnes or placebo were significantly associated with pregnancy. Fewer number of cycles bred and younger age were significantly associated with delivery of a live foal in a separate multivariate analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that mares treated with P acnes were more likely to become pregnant and to deliver a live foal, compared with placebo-treated controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of P acnes as an adjunct to conventional treatments in mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis improved pregnancy and live foal rates. The optimal effect was detected in mares bred during the interval extending from 2 days before to 8 days after first treatment with P acnes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of ketamine, magnesium sulfate, and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO-MAC) in goats.

Animals—8 adult goats.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane delivered via face mask. Goats were intubated and ventilated to maintain normocapnia. After an appropriate equilibration period, baseline MAC (MACB) was determined and the following 4 treatments were administered IV: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (loading dose [LD], 30 mL/20 min; constant rate infusion [CRI], 60 mL/h), magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h), ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min), and magnesium sulfate (LD, 50 mg/kg; CRI, 10 mg/kg/h) combined with ketamine (LD, 1 mg/kg; CRI, 25 μg/kg/min); then MAC was redetermined.

Results—Ketamine significantly decreased ISOMAC by 28.7 ± 3.7%, and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate significantly decreased ISOMAC by 21.1 ± 4.1%. Saline solution or magnesium sulfate alone did not significantly change ISOMAC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine and ketamine combined with magnesium sulfate, at doses used in the study, decreased the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain anesthesia, verifying the clinical impression that ketamine decreases the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed to maintain surgical anesthesia. Magnesium, at doses used in the study, did not decrease ISOMAC or augment ketamine's effects on ISOMAC.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effectiveness of preinduction hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) in ameliorating signs of experimentally induced endotoxemia in horses.

Animals—18 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal-sized treatment groups to receive normobaric ambient air and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HBOT and LPS, or HBOT and physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Horses were physically examined, and blood was obtained for a CBC and to determine concentration or activity of plasma tissue necrosis factor-α, blood lactate, and blood glucose before the horses were treated with HBOT and then intermittently for 6 hours after administration of LPS or physiologic saline solution.

Results—All LPS-treated horses developed signs and biochemical and hematologic changes consistent with endotoxemia. Treatment with HBOT significantly ameliorated the effect of LPS on clinical endotoxemia score but did not significantly improve other abnormalities associated with endotoxemia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The protective effect of HBOT was minimal, and results did not support its use as a treatment for horses prior to development of endotoxemia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of MgSO4, alone and in combination with propofol, on the minimum alveolar concentration preventing motor movement (MACNM) in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy purpose-bred adult male Beagles (least squares mean ± SEM body weight, 12.0 ± 1.1 kg).

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized 3 times at weekly intervals. The MACNM was measured 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia (baseline; MACNM-B) and was determined each time by use of a noxious electrical stimulus. Treatments were administered as a loading dose and constant rate infusion (CRI) as follows: treatment 1, MgSO4 loading dose of 45 mg/kg and CRI of 15 mg/kg/h; treatment 2, propofol loading dose of 4 mg/kg and CRI of 9 mg/kg/h; and treatment 3, MgSO4 and propofol combination (same doses used previously for each drug). A mixed-model ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to determine effects of each treatment on the percentage decrease from MACNM-B. Data were reported as least squares mean ± SEM values.

RESULTS Decrease from MACNM-B was 3.4 ± 3.1%, 48.3 ± 3.1%, and 50.3 ± 3.1%, for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The decrease for treatments 2 and 3 was significantly different from that for treatment 1; however, no significant difference existed between results for treatments 2 and 3.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MgSO4 did not affect MACNM, nor did it potentiate the effects of propofol on MACNM. Administration of MgSO4 in this study appeared to provide no clinical advantage as an anesthetic adjuvant.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus.

Animals—Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMACT) was measured.

Results—Mean ± SD ISOMAC and ISOMACT values were 2.33 ± 0.13% and 2.12 ± 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 ± 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMACT determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMACT and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical characteristics and breeds affected with bacterial keratitis and compare patterns of resistance in bacterial isolates over time in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—97 dogs with bacterial keratitis.

Procedure—Dogs with bacterial keratitis were identified from teaching hospital medical records at the Universities of Tennessee and Florida during the years 1993 to 2003. Data were collected pertaining to breed, Schirmer tear test results, treatments administered at the time of initial examination, bacterial species isolated, and resistance to selected antimicrobials.

Results—66% of the dogs were brachycephalic, 54% had tear production < 15 mm/min, and 29% were receiving a corticosteroid at the time of initial examination. The most common bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus intermedius (29%), β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp (17%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21%). Staphylococcus intermedius isolates had limited resistance to certain antimicrobials. More than 80% of β-hemolytic Streptococcus spp isolates were resistant to neomycin, polymyxin B, and tobramycin. Isolates of P aeruginosa were susceptible to tobramycin and gentamicin and had limited resistance to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Among bacterial species isolated, there was no evidence of development of antimicrobial resistance over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that administration of ciprofloxacin or a combination of a first-generation cephalosporin and tobramycin may be used in the treatment of bacterial keratitis while awaiting results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Evidence suggests that current methods of medical management of bacterial keratitis are not associated with increased antimicrobial resistance.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare prevalence of organisms and histologic changes in eyes from dogs with blastomycosis that were either untreated or undergoing treatment with itraconazole.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—36 dogs with endophthalmitis associated with blastomycosis.

Procedure—Signalment, results of ophthalmic examination, and duration of treatment with itraconazole were extracted from medical records. Histologic sections from eyes were examined for prevalence and viability (ie, budding) of fungal organisms. A scoring system was devised to assess the degree of inflammation.

Results—Clinically, all eyes were blind and had signs of severe endophthalmitis. Histologically, the type and degree of inflammation and prevalence of Blastomyces dermatitidis were not significantly different between dogs treated with itraconazole and untreated dogs or among groups of dogs treated for different time periods (4 to 14, 15 to 28, or 29 to 72 days). Replication of the organisms in vascular tissues as well as avascular spaces in the eyes was similar in treated and untreated dogs. Lens rupture was seen in 12 of 29 (41%) eyes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Persistence of inflammation in eyes of dogs with naturally occurring blastomycosis is likely attributable to the continued presence of B dermatitidis, regardless of the duration of treatment with itraconazole. Lens capsule rupture, a common and previously unreported histologic finding, may contribute to cataract formation and continued inflammation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1317–1322)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine proportions of cats in which feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was diagnosed on an annual, monthly, and regional basis and identify unique characteristics of cats with FIP.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of all feline accessions to veterinary medical teaching hospitals (VMTH) recorded in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between January 1986 and December 1995 and of all feline accessions for necropsy or histologic examination at 4 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

Procedure—Proportions of total and new feline accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded were calculated. To identify characteristics of cats with FIP, cats with FIP were compared with the next cat examined at the same institution (control cats).

Results—Approximately 1 of every 200 new feline and 1 of every 300 total feline accessions at VMTH in North America and approximately 1 of every 100 accessions at the diagnostic laboratories represented cats with FIP. Cats with FIP were significantly more likely to be young, purebred, and sexually intact males and significantly less likely to be spayed females and discharged alive than were control cats. The proportion of new accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded did not vary significantly among years, months, or regions of the country.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that FIP continues to be a clinically important disease in North America and that sexually intact male cats may be at increased risk, and spayed females at reduced risk, for FIP. The high prevalence of FIP and lack of effective treatment emphasizes the importance of preventive programs, especially in catteries. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1111–1115)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association