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critical need for training veterinary microbiology specialists and microbiologists working in the laboratory. Due to retirements, changing laboratory test needs, and the small number of training programs, VDLs are experiencing a shortage of trained

Open access

: 10.3390/antibiotics10040409 8. Timofte D , Broens EM , Guardabassi L , European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment (ENOVAT); ESCMID Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM); European College of

Open access

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To raise veterinary awareness of a newly recognized parasitic threat to canine and human health, highlight the increasing availability of molecular parasitological diagnostics and the need to implement best practices of cestocidal use in high-risk dogs.

ANIMAL

A young Boxer dog with vomiting and bloody diarrhea, suspected diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

Bloodwork revealed inflammation, dehydration, and protein loss, addressed with supportive therapy. Fecal culture revealed only Escherichia coli. On centrifugal flotation, tapeworm eggs (which could be Taenia or Echinococcus spp) and, unusually, adult cestodes of Echinococcus were observed. The referring veterinarian was contacted to initiate immediate treatment with a cestocide due to zoonotic potential. Diagnosis was confirmed with a coproPCR which has higher sensitivity for Echinococcus spp than fecal flotation alone. DNA was identical to an introduced European strain of E multilocularis currently emerging in dogs, people, and wildlife. Since dogs can also self-infect and develop hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (severe and often fatal), this was ruled out using serology and abdominal ultrasound.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Following cestocidal treatment, fecal flotation and coproPCR were negative for eggs and DNA of E multilocularis; however, coccidia were detected and diarrhea resolved following treatment with sulfa-based antibiotics.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This dog was serendipitously diagnosed with E multilocularis, acquired through ingestion of a rodent intermediate host likely infected from foxes and coyotes. Therefore, as a dog at high risk of reexposure from eating rodents, regular (ideally monthly) treatment with a labeled cestocide is indicated going forward.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the novel PCR diagnosis and outcome of intestinal Echinococcus multilocularis in a dog.

ANIMAL

A 13-month-old female intact dog with naturally occurring intestinal E multilocularis.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The 13-month-old dog initially presented with a reduced appetite and weight loss and then developed hematochezia. The clinical history included a lack of endoparasite preventive care (fecal testing, deworming), exposure to coyotes, fox, sheep, and rodents and the dog had intermittently been fed a raw food diet. Physical examination revealed a thin dog, with a 2/9 body condition score, that was otherwise clinically unremarkable. A fecal sample was submitted for screening for gastrointestinal parasites as part of an infectious disease assessment. The fecal PCR test reported detection of E multilocularis. This result was sequenced as the European haplotype E3/E4. Centrifugal flotation (same sample) did not detect taeniid eggs.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The dog was treated with metronidazole, maropitant, and milbemycin oxime/praziquantel. Clinical improvement was noted within 48 hours. No DNA of E multilocularis was detected in a fecal sample collected approximately 10 days after treatment. The dog’s owner was advised to provide monthly deworming (praziquantel) for all dogs on the property and to contact their human health-care provider due to potential zoonotic exposure risk.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing detection of E multilocularis is occurring in dogs in Canada and the US. Alveolar echinococcosis can cause severe disease in dogs and humans. Fecal PCR detection and surveillance may alert practitioners to canine intestinal cases and allow dogs to serve as sentinels for human exposure risk.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To present, analyze, and discuss stakeholders’ opinions regarding sharing antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data from animals into a centralized database and dashboard tool that would collect, aggregate, store, and analyze this type of data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) across the country.

SAMPLE

1 in-person focus group (9 participants), 9 virtual focus groups (49 participants), and online pre- and postmeeting surveys (76 and 35 participants, respectively).

METHODS

Focus groups and surveys were conducted to assess the opinions of veterinarians, producers, researchers, diagnosticians, and government officials.

RESULTS

A strong majority of stakeholders recognize AMR as a serious concern for both human and animal health and see several benefits in establishing a centralized AMR database; however, several concerns were raised associated with data confidentiality, security, curation, and harmonization. In the interest of alleviating those concerns, among other items, stakeholders suggested education and training of data users, providers, and the public in addition to assuring strong data confidentiality protections.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Stakeholder engagement is a critical component of all stages of development, implementation, and utilization of an AMR database and dashboard tool that could be used to inform antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary medicine. This assessment of stakeholders’ needs and concerns can be used to help guide future recommendations for data legal protections as well as a data confidentiality and security framework. Maintaining open communication on data usage, storage, and security as well as involvement and education of data providers, users, and the public will remain key to enabling development of an AMR database and dashboard tool for domesticated animals.

Open access

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the prevalence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva of brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs.

ANIMALS

12 brachycephalic (9.58 ± 3.55 years) and 12 nonbrachycephalic (8.33 ± 4.92 years) dogs without systemic disease, regardless of breed and sex, were included in the study, and half of the dogs in each group had periodontitis.

METHODS

This prospective study investigated clinical data including craniofacial ratio, ophthalmic examination results, and periodontal status of the included dogs. Bacterial samples were collected by swabbing the oral mucosa and conjunctival surfaces. The presence and quantity of bacteria were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the 10-fold dilution method. Statistical analyses were performed to assess correlations and factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva.

RESULTS

The most common bacteria in the conjunctival flora in both groups were Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium spp, and Staphylococcus spp. The prevalence of oral bacteria on the conjunctival surface was 33%, with a significantly higher incidence in brachycephalic dogs (P = .027). Oral bacteria detected in the conjunctiva were predominantly Frederiksenia canicola, Neisseria spp, and Moraxella spp. Multiple regression analysis identified age, craniofacial ratio, and gingival index as factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctival flora.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Oral resident bacteria have often been isolated from severe infectious corneal ulcers. This study provided evidence that brachycephalic dogs may require dental prophylaxis to reduce their oral bacterial load and that the association of oral bacteria in ocular diseases should be considered.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease in ruminants that causes significant economic losses worldwide. However, the prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) in small ruminants has been overlooked in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FMD in sheep and goats in the border area between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

ANIMALS

800 sheep and goats belongs to age groups of 6 month to > 2 years.

METHODS

A total of 800 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 424) and goats (n = 376) and subjected to structural protein (SP) and 3ABC non-SP (NSP) ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SP and NSP of the FMDV.

RESULTS

For NSP, 340/800 (42.5%) of samples were positive, while SP analysis revealed that serotype O (44.5%) was the most common in sheep and goats, followed by Asia-1 (42%) and A (32%) serotypes. Sheep (39%; 95% CI, 34 to 44) had a higher (P < .05) prevalence of FMD than goats (46%; 95% CI, 41 to 51). Statistically significant (P < .05) differences in the seroprevalence of FMD-SP and FMD-NSPs were observed between various agencies (areas) of the study area. Risk factors such as age, sex, breed, season, flock size, body condition, animal movement, and production system were significantly (P < .05) associated with FMDV prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS

This study showed that FMD is highly prevalent in sheep and goats in the border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Therefore, outbreak investigation teams should be arranged at the border level to develop FMD risk-based surveillance and control plans for small ruminants in order to mitigate infection risks.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Antibiograms are important tools for antimicrobial stewardship that are often underutilized in veterinary medicine. Antibiograms summarize cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data for specific pathogens over a defined time period; in veterinary medicine, they are often stratified by host species and site of infection. They can aid practitioners with empiric therapy choices and assessment of antimicrobial resistance trends within a population in support of one-health goals for antimicrobial stewardship. For optimal application, consideration must be given to the number of isolates used, the timeframe of sample collection, laboratory analytical methodology, and the patient population contributing to the data (eg, treatment history, geographic region, and production type). There are several limitations to veterinary antibiograms, including a lack of breakpoint availability for bacterial species, a lack of standardization of laboratory methodology and technology for culture and AST, and a lack of funding to staff veterinary diagnostic laboratories at a level that supports antibiogram development and education. It is vital that veterinarians who use antibiograms understand how to apply them in practice and receive relevant information pertaining to the data to utilize the most appropriate antibiogram for their patients. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of developing and using veterinary antibiograms and proposes strategies to enhance their applicability and accuracy. Further detail regarding the application of veterinary antibiograms by privately practicing clinicians is addressed in the companion Currents in One Health article by Lorenz et al (JAVMA, September 2023).

Open access

DS , Kennedy M , Chengappa MM , Wilkes R , eds . Veterinary Microbiology . 4th ed . Wiley-Blackwell ; 2022 : 522 - 532 . doi: 10.1002/9781119650836.ch53 29. Wolfe AM , Rahman M , McFadden DG , Bartee EC . Refinement and

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

should collaborate with veterinary microbiology experts at diagnostic laboratories, who can help veterinarians understand breakpoints and select diagnostic tests and antimicrobials . 47 Veterinarians should tell the laboratory about patient clinical

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association