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reptiles. 26 However, actual reports of these clinical signs coinciding with cardiovascular disease in reptiles are rare. 27 , 28 Some reptilian species, namely Iguana spp, have a large retrobulbar orbital sinus. 26 , 29 Therefore diseases that cause

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

been described in turtle species, but the concern for toxicity appears low with no documentation of adverse effects in reptiles. 6 , 8 The lack of adverse effect documentation in reptiles, however, may be due to a lack of complete investigation

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of anthracosis at 56.7% (38/67) than mammals at 41.9% (116/277). However, there was no carbon deposition in the reptile species observed (0/6). When the presence of lung deposition of dust was estimated, some species of animals such as the lion

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial describing intraperitoneal (IP) and intracoelomic (IC) therapeutics (IP/IC fluid therapy, euthanasia, direct peritoneal resuscitation).

ANIMALS

Dogs, cats, and exotic pets.

METHODS

Peritoneal and coelomic centesis allows for delivery of fluids or to perform euthanasia. The peritoneal and coelomic membranes contain a vast network of capillaries and lymphatics that allow absorption of fluids and blood products. Needles are inserted aseptically IP or IC at species-specific locations to avoid iatrogenic damage. In mammals, the needle is inserted in a periumbilical location at a 1- to 2-cm radius from the umbilicus, while the needle is inserted into the ventral inguinal fossa in chelonians and lateroventrally in lizards and snakes. Direct peritoneal resuscitation is a human technique in which a dextrose/electrolyte solution infused IP reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury, edema, and tissue necrosis to improve mortality in patients with diseases like shock and sepsis or who require acute abdominal surgery.

RESULTS

Isotonic crystalloids are given IP/IC at 10- to 20-mL/kg doses (smaller volumes in reptiles) and blood products at standard calculated doses. Sodium pentobarbital without phenytoin (3 mL/4.5 kg) is used for IP/IC euthanasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Being aware of multiple routes for fluid and blood product administration allows treatment in animals for which intravenous or intraosseous catheterization is undesirable or impossible. While intravenous or intraosseous routes are always preferred, especially for resuscitation, familiarity with locations for IP/IC fluid and euthanasia is useful. Techniques like direct peritoneal resuscitation are not currently used in animals but might be translated to veterinary cases in the future.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

S ystemic disease in reptiles, such as renal or hepatic disorders, can present with nonspecific clinical signs, such as lethargy, inappetence, and dehydration. Though diagnostics such as endoscopic evaluation and biopsy allow direct assessment of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

extracranially into the cervical musculature, as seen in this case. 2 In reptiles, endolymphatic sacs are thought to play a role in calcium metabolism, perhaps acting as a site of storage of calcium carbonate that can be mobilized during egg formation and can be

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

temperature, humidity, light cycle, or social changes. 4 Normal follicular development in reptiles involves vitellogenesis or the formation/accumulation of yolk in the liver. 5 Estrogen stimulates the liver to convert lipid found in the body’s fat stores to

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

amphibians, although reports in reptiles are sporadic. 5 , 9 , 10 Mycobacterium marinum is the Mycobacterium species most often isolated from reptiles 7 and is zoonotic. In humans, M marinum is usually localized to the skin and may cause granulomatous

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

T he current AVMA euthanasia guidelines acknowledge the unique challenges inherent to reptile euthanasia. 1 Ideally, intravascular administration of sodium pentobarbital, the primary active ingredient in euthanasia solution, is preferred. 1 , 2

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A ccording to the most recent survey conducted by the AVMA, 3.7 million households across the United States have at least 1 companion reptile; this represents a 23.3% increase from 3.0 million households owning reptiles as pets in 2012. 1 A rapid

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research