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Introduction Fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, usually caused by Aspergillus spp, are frequently seen in psittacine patients, with certain species, such as African grey parrots, being more commonly affected. 1 Aspergillosis

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

restraint. The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and JSTOR databases were used to search for publications related to the topic using the words: parrot, psittacine, isoflurane, hematological effects, and CBC. No experimental studies on isoflurane

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ideally have access to published information and be familiar with the species’ behavioral response to stress to avoid confounding behavioral alterations. Psittacine birds are common companion animals, and cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ) are the most

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

this study and has previously been used to assess lameness in psittacines and other avian species. 13 – 16 The use of a thermal stimulus perch has been applied in a variety of avian studies 17 , 18 and particularly in studies with cockatiels. 19 , 20

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

psittacine species, and other anxiety-related behaviors. 4 , 8 , 9 Thus, chronically elevated levels of corticosterone appear to have a wide range of negative effects on the health status of birds. In veterinary medicine, understanding the role of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

conditions that significantly reduce the life expectancy of psittacine birds. There is a strong species predisposition to atherosclerosis and other lipid disorders, especially within Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.), grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cholesterol concentrations were high ( Table 1 ) . It was recommended that the patient be fed a more balanced diet for psittacines and that the seeds, eggs, and fish be removed from the diet. The owner was instructed to feed a commercially available pelleted

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

traumatic or surgical pain. 9 Historically, studies 2 , 3 have supported the use of κ-agonist and µ-antagonist drugs, such as nalbuphine or butorphanol, for analgesia in psittacine species. Endogenous opioid peptides, such as β-endorphin, methionine

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hyperthermia, tachypnea, and acute decompensation of critically ill individuals potentially resulting in mortality. 3 , 4 Additionally, the struggling of psittacines during manual restraint can result in injury to both the patient and veterinary personnel. 5

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

C aptive psittacine birds are predisposed to lipid disorders, which include atherosclerosis, hepatic lipidosis, xanthomas, and obesity, with atherosclerosis being one of their most common lipid disorders. Similar to humans, increased plasma

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research