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—gives most dogs with advanced metastatic disease only a few additional months of life. “We are good at shrinking the primary tumor, but once it has spread our treatment options become very limited,” says Dr. Tim Fan, director of the Comparative Oncology

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intervention. Additionally, access to certain imaging modalities may be limited in some care settings, and evaluation by imaging may require sedation or anesthesia, posing risks to the patient. In human oncology, next-generation sequencing-based (NGS

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

particularly proud of the strides we have made in small animal oncology: Comprehensive service: With a group of 7 faculty and 8 trainees across the specialties of medical, surgical, and radiation oncology working together under 1 roof, we are one of the

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

from 6 PetCure Oncology locations with a histologic diagnosis of a narrowly (< 3 mm) 7 or incompletely excised grade II or III STS were prospectively enrolled into this study. Each dog was treated with a standardized protocol incorporating a single

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

March 2020 with the Surgical Oncology Service at VCA West Coast Specialty and Emergency Animal Hospital were reviewed. Dogs were included if they were ≥ 8 years of age at presentation, underwent a major surgical procedure under general anesthesia, and

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine bicarbonate (HCO3 ) secretion ex vivo in the equine large colon to determine any differences between the right dorsal colon (RDC) and right ventral colon (RVC). The effect of phenylbutazone (PBZ) on HCO3 secretion was examined in the RDC.

ANIMALS

14 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES

In anesthetized horses (n = 10), segments of mucosa from RDC and RVC were harvested to measure HCO3 secretion ex vivo with the pH Stat method. The effect of PBZ on HCO3 secretion in the RDC was studied in 4 additional horses.

RESULTS

Three distinct mechanisms of HCO3 secretion previously described in a murine model were confirmed in the equine colon. The RDC had a greater capacity for electrogenic, Cl-independent HCO3 secretion than the RVC (P = 0.04). In the RDC, all HCO3 secretion was decreased by PBZ (P < 0.02) but was not studied in the RVC because of low baseline secretion.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Secretion of HCO3 by the RDC could play a pivotal role in equine colon physiology, because intense microbial fermentation in this site could require HCO3 secretion to buffer short-chain fatty acids. Inhibition of this secretion by PBZ could interfere with mucosal buffering and predispose to changes associated with right dorsal colitis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as prominent mediators of the homeostasis, repair, and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues including bone, skeletal muscle, and cartilage. Accordingly, the therapeutic potential of EVs for regenerative medicine applications has not gone unnoticed. The use of EVs for the treatment of musculoskeletal injury and disease in veterinary species is a nascent but rapidly expanding area of research. Recent studies in this area have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of EV products in dogs and horses. While early clinical responses to EV-based therapeutics in companion animals have been favorable, more rigorously designed, sufficiently powered, and placebo-controlled clinical trials are required to fully elucidate the clinical benefits and best-use scenarios for EV therapeutics in veterinary medicine. Additionally, clinical translation of EV-based therapeutics will require Good Manufacturing Practice–compliant methods to scale up and purify EV products. Despite these challenges, EVs hold great promise in the regenerative medicine landscape, particularly in the treatment of musculoskeletal injury and disease in companion animals.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Right dorsal colitis causes chronic colic associated with long-term treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study was designed to determine if NSAIDs could inhibit anion transporters that protect against intestinal mucosal injury in other species.

ANIMALS

20 healthy horses.

METHODS

The effects of indomethacin (INDO) and firocoxib (FIR), on short-circuit current (Isc) in mucosa from the right dorsal colon (RDC) and right ventral colon (RVC) were measured in Ussing chambers by standard electrophysiological techniques. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect apoptosis (caspase-3) with these NSAIDs and phenylbutazone (PBZ) and to locate the NKCC1 transporter.

RESULTS

The Isc in RDC and RVC incubated with INDO or FIR was increased almost 3-fold (P < .0001) by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through a system inhibited by loop diuretics (P < .0001). Although these findings and anion replacement studies were consistent with anion secretion, the RDC also displayed an Isc response suggestive of a unique transporter apparently absent in RVC or NSAID-free solutions. In RDC, FIR, INDO, and PBZ induced apoptosis in the lower half of crypts. However, significant differences in apoptotic index were recorded in the RDC between NSAID-treated and control tissues (no NSAID).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The effects of NSAIDs on Isc were consistent with reduced anion secretion, which could represent the pharmacological equivalent of the transport failure responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) in other species. Failure of anion secretion could interfere with buffering acid from intraluminal fermentation, which could suggest a treatment target for right dorsal colitis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare erythrocyte recovery by a cell salvage device between swab-washing by manual agitation or filtration.

SAMPLE

12 recently expired units of canine packed RBCs.

PROCEDURE

The packed RBC units underwent quality analysis before donation from a pet blood bank. Each unit was volume-expanded with anticoagulant and subsequently divided into 2 equal aliquots used to soak surgical swabs before washing. Two different swab-washing techniques were evaluated—standard swab-washing–manual agitation (SW-MA) and swab-washing–filtration (SW-F)—with a novel prototype device. The resulting bloody fluid was processed using the Cell Saver Elite Autotransfusion System (Haemonetics). The volume, manual PCV, CBC, and RBC mass, calculated as the product of the volume and PCV, were measured before and after salvaging. Last, the RBC mass recovery was recorded as a percentage.

RESULTS

The RBC mass recovered from SW-MA and SW-F averaged 85.73% and 83.99%, respectively. There was no significant difference in RBC recovery between the 2 methods (P = .52).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SW-MA and SW-F recovered a similar quantity of RBCs from blood-soaked swabs in an ex vivo setting.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association