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, Martínez-López B . Epidemiology and spatio-temporal analysis of West Nile virus in horses in Spain between 2010 and 2016 . Transbound Emerg Dis . 2018 ; 65 ( 2 ): 567 - 577 . doi: 10.1111/tbed.12742 13. Ward MP . Spatio-temporal analysis of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

χ 2 test was used to compare sex distribution between GBM and healthy control groups. The level of significance was set at P < .05. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist was used to ensure all criteria

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.1053/jcpa.1999.0335 6. Marshall ID , Regnery DC , Grodhaus G . Studies in the epidemiology of myxomatosis in California I: observations on two outbreaks of myxomatosis in coastal California and the recovery of myxoma virus from a brush rabbit

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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( 1 ): 5384 . doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25655-8 11. Sobkowich KE , Weese JS , Poljak Z , Plum A , Szlosek D , Bernardo TM . Epidemiology of companion animal AMR in the United States of America: filling a gap in the one health

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish and compare the precision of serum total protein (STP) measured by an optical refractometer to the precision of IgG concentrations measured using radial immunodiffusion (RID), the reference test for quantifying IgG in neonatal calves.

SAMPLE

6 sera with previously measured IgG concentration using RID from neonatal beef calves were selected from 3 stratum: low-serum IgG stratum between >5.0 and <15.0g/L(n = 4); moderate-serum IgG stratum between 35.0–45.0g/L(n = 1); high-serum IgG stratum between 60.0–70.0g/L(n = 1).

METHODS

STP was measured 13 times with an optical refractometer. IgG concentrations were measured 28 times with a commercial bovine IgG RID for each sera. The homogeneity of variance within the tests was evaluated with the Levene test (α = 0.10). Unrestricted random sampling bootstrapping (5,000 repetitions) was used to calculate the coefficient of variation (CV) for each serum and test. The homogeneity of variance between simulated test CVs by serum was evaluated (α = 0.10). Differences between simulated test CV by serum were assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05).

RESULTS

No difference was observed in the variance for STP between sera (P = .39). The average CV for STP was 4.2%, 10.1% for the low IgG stratum, and 15.5% for the moderate/high IgG stratum. Variance differed in serum IgG concentration (P < .0001). Serum with higher IgG concentrations had more variance. Simulated CV for STP and IgG had homogeneity of variance for only 1 sera (P = .31). STP had a smaller CV compared to IgG for every serum (P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Estimating IgG concentration directly by RID or indirectly by STP lacks the precision that might affect diagnostic interpretation regarding a calf’s absorption of maternal antibodies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fainei sp. nov., isolated from pigs in Australia . Int J Syst Bacteriol . 1998 ; 48 Pt 3 : 851 – 858 . 7. Sykes JE , Reagan KL , Nally JE , et al . Role of diagnostics in epidemiology, management, surveillance, and control of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hurdles, and underscore the urgency of advancing clinical approaches to reduce vision loss and improve outcomes in EFK. Epidemiology and Etiology Prevalence Reports 5 – 10 , 12 , 14 of the prevalence of EFK exhibit significant variation, with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/or anesthetic pre-euthanasia medications, and additional doses of pentobarbital to optimize euthanasia techniques. Acknowledgments The authors thank the students of the “Dragon Team” of the Wildlife Epidemiology Laboratory for the daily care and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Michigan State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Comparative Epidemiology. Dr. Heather Brake is the Director of Communications at the CDC, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. This

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), from pharmaceutical companies (Novo Nordisk), and from a generous contribution from Dr. Nancy A. Dreyer to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Epidemiology. Dr. Stürmer does not accept personal compensation of any kind from any

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association