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emergence and mitigation of AMR. 9 , 10 While these are all important, we are growing increasingly aware of the impact the environment has on the emergence, amplification, dissemination, and persistence of ARB and genes that affect our veterinary patients

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-resistant gene type in South Pacific and Asian countries. 4 This leads to important scientific questions about where this antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) originated and how it was introduced and amplified in the environment of a pig farm in the US. Similar

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

24.8  Female 185 75.2  Nonbinary/third gender 0 0.0  Prefer to self-describe 0 0.0 Factors underpinning career-related decision-making were ranked by level of importance as (1) workplace environment/culture ( x

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) to identify factors associated with elevated burden-transfer risk by examining the association between levels of burden transfer and (a) aspects of the psychosocial work environment pertaining to well-being and (b) individual burnout as a metric of

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Cats housed in shelters commonly experience unmitigated fear, anxiety, and stress. 1 , 2 Minimizing negative affective states is critical to cat health and welfare in the shelter environment. 3 This is especially important in

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

these housing environments. Additionally, we hypothesized that there would be differences in echocardiographic parameters between animals of different size, sex, restraint method (anesthesia or manual restraint), and echocardiographic approach (ventral

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

through September and then decrease at the end of October. 1 In that time, the number and severity of documented injuries and falls increase (Freeman, PhD, Disney’s Animals, Science and Environment, Bay Lake, FL, unpublished data, 2015). Fecal and urine T

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.

ANIMALS

10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.

PROCEDURES

The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.

RESULTS

IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the effect of a mesotherapy protocol in dogs with osteoarthritis.

ANIMALS

30 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to a control (CG; n = 10) or a mesotherapy group (MG; 20). CG received meloxicam for 70 days. MG was treated with a combination of lidocaine, piroxicam, and thiocolchicoside, injected in intradermal points. Seven treatment sessions were conducted. Response to treatment was measured with different instruments: the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (divided into Pain Interference Score [PIS] and Pain Severity Score [PSS]), Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD), and Canine Orthopedic Index (COI; divided into function, gait, stiffness, and quality of life), at time 0 (T0), +15 days, +30 days, +60 days, and +90 days after T0. At each time point, the results of the 2 groups with each instrument were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P < .05. Kaplan-Meier estimators were compared with the Breslow test.

RESULTS

Dogs had a mean age of 6.9 ± 2.7 years and a body weight of 31.0 ± 6.4 kg. Hip osteoarthritis was classified as mild (n = 9), moderate (17), or severe (4). No differences were found at T0. Better results were observed in MG at +15 days (P < .01 for PSS and PIS, P = .03 for function), +30 days (P = .01 for PIS and LOAD, P = .03 for PSS, and P = .04 for function, gait, and COI), +60 days (P < .01 for PSS and PIS, P = .01 for LOAD, and P = .02 for function), and +90 days (P = .01 for PSS and PIS, P = .03 for LOAD, and P = .04 for function). Kaplan-Meier estimators showed MG had longer periods with better results than CG in various scores.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This mesotherapy protocol reduced pain scores and other clinical metrology instrument scores lasting for longer periods.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research