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Data are shown as median (range) or number (percentage). Results within a row with different superscript letters are significantly different from one another. CHF = Congestive heart failure. ACE = Angiotensin converting enzyme. FETCH = Functional

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

H ypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cardiac disease in cats. 1 It is reported in 15% of cats and up to 29% of older cats. 2 , 3 HCM can progress to congestive heart failure (CHF) and cause clinical manifestations such as

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dragon in congestive heart failure with an aneurysm. The left atrium (LA) and ventricle (V) are both dilated. Moderate pericardial effusion (PE) is present. The aorta (Ao) is moderately distended with a hyperechoic structure of a suspected aneurysm that

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in the control dogs (5.6 [4.0 to 7.1]). The horizontal bars show the medians and IQRs from the first to the third quartile. Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. * P < .05; ** P < .01. CHF = Congestive heart failure; MMVD

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; Supplementary Table S1 ). Male dogs predominated (57%), and the median weight was 28 kg (IQR, 23 to 33 kg). Overall, at the time of diagnosis, 63 of 91 (69%) dogs had congestive heart failure (CHF) and 47 of 91 (52%) had cardiac arrhythmias (supraventricular, 23

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

C ardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation, and congestive heart failure (CHF) is particularly considered an inflammatory status. 1 In dogs, pro-inflammatory cytokines (eg, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-1, and

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-sided congestive heart failure was considered unlikely. To interrogate for pulmonary hypertension and to characterize the ausculted heart murmur, an echocardiogram was performed. This revealed a mildly dilated left atrium (left atrial-to-aortic root ratio in

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

complications associated with systemic hypertension and include bullous to complete retinal detachment, intraretinal edema, and hemorrhage. Moreover, cardiac changes such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left-sided congestive heart failure (rare) are also

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

histologic findings included pulmonary edema likely due to left-sided congestive heart failure, lymphocytic and mildly neutrophilic pancreatitis with mild periductular fibrosis, and chronic lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis. Figure 2

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

accelerates most rapidly 6 to 12 months before congestive heart failure (CHF) occurs. 4 These days, veterinarians are classifying MMVD dogs according to MMVD classifications suggested by American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines. 1

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research