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bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of about 1% to 2%. 13 The average systemic bioavailability of nebulized gentamicin was estimated to be 5%. 5 The efficacy of gentamicin has been linked to the ratio of the maximal concentration (C max ) divided by the MIC (C

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

nasopharyngeal swab (DNP), transtracheal wash (TTW), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being most common. 11 Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages, but research shows that agreement among the different methods for the detection of bacterial

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

exacerbations, and horses with fungal particles in their tracheal aspirates are more likely to be diagnosed with equine asthma than those without fungi in their trachea. 4 However, fungal spores have been observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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biomarkers, cytokines, acute-phase proteins (APP), and biochemical parameters involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia have been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum or plasma in human and

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

T he diagnosis of equine asthma (EA) relies on history, clinical signs, and detection of airway inflammation on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology. 1 EA affects between 12% and 80% of horses, depending on the population sampled. 2 It

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

thoracic CT, and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with greater than 10% eosinophils. The percent BALF eosinophil cutoff for asthmatic cats was derived from a study 17 comparing BALF and lung tissue in healthy and asthmatic pet cats, which

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intramuscularly (IM) (n = 6); (4) 300 μg VapA IM (positive controls; n = 6); or, (5) nebulized water (negative controls; n = 6). Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and PBMCs were collected from foals at ages 3, 22, and 35 days to test for relative anti

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Dickinson & Co) or brain-heart infusion broth (isolator tube; Wampole Laboratories) for culture. Tissue samples for microbial culture were obtained via fine-needle aspiration, bronchoalveolar lavage, or biopsy and transferred to a sterile swab sample

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

2 O/L/s) and pulmonary inflammation (increased proportion of neutrophils [≥ 25%] in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) after exposure to hay. 25 The control horses had no history of respiratory disease despite hay being the primary component of their

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

diagnostic test is typically used to diagnose equine asthma?  A) Serum biochemistry  B) Skin biopsy  C) Bronchoalveolar lavage  D) Peritoneal fluid analysis Which of the following management practices is crucial in reducing respiratory issues in

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association