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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Synovial extramedullary hematopoiesis is a rarely reported condition in humans and, to date, has never been reported in canines. This case report describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, treatment, and outcome of a canine case confirmed to have hematopoietic tissue within multiple joints.

ANIMAL

A client-owned canine.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The clinical presentation was most consistent with immune-mediated polyarthritis, and arthrocentesis was performed in multiple joints for cytological evaluation and culture. Cytology revealed evidence of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and shortly thereafter the dog was diagnosed with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Pregabalin, prednisolone, clopidogrel, and cyclosporine were started, and after several recheck appointments and dose adjustments, the dog’s clinical signs resolved for all conditions.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Unusual sites of extramedullary hematopoietic tissue may result in a clinical presentation for which more traditional etiologies and differentials are not applicable.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was set to P < .05, at the 95% CI. Arthrocentesis Synovial fluid samples were obtained by an experienced veterinarian using a 1-inch, 20G needle attached to a 5-mL syringe and using aseptic technique following surgical preparation of the skin

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

at weeks 0, 1, 3, and 5. Intra-articular injection and arthrocentesis Each horse was sedated with 3 to 5 mg detomidine hydrochloride (Zoetis) administered IV and appropriately restrained. The dorsal aspect of each carpus underwent aseptic

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

clearly different from the saline, preventing blinding of all study participants. Horses were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride before each arthrocentesis, and standard aseptic procedures were utilized. Using a lateral approach with the fetlock joint

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

collected in lithium heparin tubes by arthrocentesis of the ipsilateral RCJ via the lateral palmar approach at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes following completion of the perfusion. If synovial fluid was not obtained from this location, arthrocentesis was

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

these clinical signs were a result of the arthrocentesis process. However, it is also important to note that the commercially available dexmedetomidine formulation used in the current study is labeled for systemic administration and contains

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

condyles with mild joint effusion, bilateral flattening of the humeral heads, and bilateral distal ulnar retained cartilage cores. Arthrocentesis of carpal, tarsal, femoropatellar, and medial and lateral femorotibial joints bilaterally revealed moderate

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

effusion initially improved slightly but returned with increased severity the following month. The referring veterinarian noted severe swelling in the left tarsocrural joint and performed arthrocentesis. Synovial fluid analysis revealed a total nucleated

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Distinguishing alternative causes of lameness from normal postoperative stifle joint discomfort following a TPLO can be challenging and require adjunct diagnostic procedures, including arthrocentesis (with or without fluid analysis, cytology, bacterial culture

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

including humans, swine, mice, dogs, cats, and horses. 10 – 16 In humans, IA buprenorphine after arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint provided pain relief and increased joint mobility when compared to saline. 17 Other studies 18 , 19 in people

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research