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details of how molecular changes in the virus impact viral phenotype, including the ability to infect and emerge as a pathogen in a novel host. H5 and H7 HPAI have been a continual threat to agricultural poultry as a result of the spontaneous emergence of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

identified as a spillover into a nonhuman mammal is shaded dark blue. The spillover host is shown as S (swine), D (dog), P (pinniped), or C (cetecean). A subtype that became endemic within the spillover mammalian host is marked (asterisk). HPAI = High

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

continents. On the other hand, LPAI viruses (H5 and H7 subtypes) can mutate into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as a result of insertion mutations in the cleavage site of the HA gene or deletion mutations in the NA gene and cause clinical

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research