To measure baseline plasma corticosterone levels in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and assess the effects of handling and restraint on corticosterone levels over 1 hour, reflective of what parrots might experience during veterinary care.
10 male and 12 female Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
Each parrot was removed from its cage and wrapped in a towel for restraint similar to that performed in a clinical setting. An initial baseline blood sample was collected in < 3 minutes upon entrance into the parrot room, after which blood samples were taken every 15 minutes for 1 hour (a total of 5 blood samples). An enzyme-linked immunoassay was validated for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and used to determine concentrations of plasma corticosterone.
On average, parrots showed a significant increase in corticosterone between baseline samples and all subsequent postrestraint time points (average baseline corticosterone ± SD: 0.51 ± 0.65 ng/mL). Females, on average, displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than males after 30, 45, and 60 minutes of restraint (P = .016, P = .0099, and P = .015, respectively). Birds with feather-destructive behavior did not have significantly higher corticosterone levels than birds without the condition (P = .38).
Understanding the physiological stress response in companion psittacine birds during routine handling will allow clinicians to better evaluate how this may affect the patient’s condition and diagnostic test results. Assessing how corticosterone correlates to behavioral conditions such as feather-destructive behavior will provide clinicians with the potential to develop treatment options.
To determine the pharmacokinetics of a solution containing cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), administered orally in 2 single-dose studies (with and without food), in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
6 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.
In phase 1, 6 rabbits were administered 15 mg/kg CBD with 16.4 mg/kg CBDA orally in hemp oil. In phase 2, 6 rabbits were administered the same dose orally in hemp oil followed by a food slurry. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours to determine the pharmacokinetics of CBD and CBDA. Quantification of plasma CBD and CBDA concentrations was determined using a validated liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assay. Pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental analysis.
For CBD, the area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC)0–∞ was 179.8 and 102 hours X ng/mL, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 30.4 and 15 ng/mL, the time to Cmax (tmax) was 3.78 and 3.25 hours, and the terminal half-life (t1/2λ) was 7.12 and 3.8 hours in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. For CBDA, the AUC0–∞ was 12,286 and 6,176 hours X ng/mL, Cmax was 2,573 and 1,196 ng/mL, tmax was 1.07 and 1.12 hours, and t1/2λ was 3.26 and 3.49 hours in phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. Adverse effects were not observed in any rabbit.
CBD and CBDA reached a greater Cmax and had a longer t1/2λ in phase 1 (without food) compared with phase 2 (with food). CBDA reached a greater Cmax but had a shorter t1/2λ than CBD both in phase 1 and phase 2. These data may be useful in determining appropriate dosing of cannabinoids in the domestic rabbit.