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  • Author or Editor: Yoshiaki Hikasa x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of IM and IV administration of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine, midazolam, or both on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes in isoflurane-anesthetized cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration.

ANIMALS

72 client-owned mixed-breed cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration between October 4, 2018, and January 10, 2020.

PROCEDURES

For each type of surgery, cats were assigned to 1 of 6 premedication protocols groups, with 6 cats/group: physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.5 mL, IM) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IV); physiologic saline solution (0.5 mL, IM) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IM); medetomidine (50 μg/kg, IM) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IV); medetomidine (50 μg/kg, IM) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IM); midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, IM), medetomidine (50 μg/kg, IM), and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IV); or midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, IM), medetomidine (50 μg/kg, IM), and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, IM). Venous blood was taken before pretreatment, pre- and postoperatively during anesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen, and during early and complete recovery.

RESULTS

Compared with baseline concentrations, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations decreased during anesthesia in cats premedicated with alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine. The combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and alfaxalone prevented an excessive increase in catecholamines during anesthesia and surgery in cats. Postoperative plasma cortisol concentration after ovariohysterectomy was lower for cats premedicated with the combination of medetomidine and alfaxalone or the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and alfaxalone, compared with cats premedicated with alfaxalone alone. Cats treated with combinations that included medetomidine and midazolam had hyperglycemia during anesthesia. Cats treated with medetomidine or medetomidine and midazolam in combination with alfaxalone, compared with alfaxalone alone, had lower concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during anesthesia. Behavioral recovery scores were lower (better) for cats that received medetomidine in addition to alfaxalone, compared with alfaxalone alone.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that pretreatments with medetomidine and alfaxalone or with medetomidine, midazolam, and alfaxalone were useful for preventing stress-related hormonal and metabolic responses, other than hyperglycemia, during isoflurane anesthesia and surgery in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research