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  • Author or Editor: Tracy L. Drazenovich x
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Describe the pharmacokinetics of grapiprant administered orally with food to red-tailed hawks (RTHAs; Buteo jamaicensis) and compare the results with previously described grapiprant pharmacokinetics administered without food in this species.


6 healthy adult RTHA (3 males, 3 females) under human care.


A single dose of grapiprant (30 mg/kg) was given orally to RTHAs, followed by force-feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 14 time points for 120 hours postgrapiprant administration. Plasma concentrations of grapiprant were measured via tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonparametric superimposition using pharmacokinetic modeling software used plasma concentrations to calculate simulations of grapiprant plasma concentrations for 30 mg/kg administered orally with food every 12 hours.


The arithmetic mean maximum plasma concentration was 405.8 ng/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration was 16 hours, and harmonic mean terminal half-life was 15.6 hours. Simulations determined 30 mg/kg every 12 hours could attain minimum effective concentrations (> 164 ng/mL) reported in dogs for a sustained period of approximately 20 hours.


Grapiprant plasma concentrations were achieved above the canine therapeutic concentrations within 16 hours postmedication. Mean concentrations were maintained for approximately 20 hours. Simulations support a dosing frequency of 12-hour intervals with food reaching minimum effective concentrations established for canines, although it is unknown whether these plasma concentrations are therapeutic for birds. Bioaccumulation was not noted on simulations secondary to increased grapiprant administration. Further research including multidose assessments at this current dose with food, in vitro pharmacological characterization, and pharmacodynamic studies in this species are warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research