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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC) and markers of oxidative stress, as measured by derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs), in healthy foals at birth and during the first month of life.

SAMPLES

Venous blood samples were collected from healthy Standardbred (n = 13) and Quarter Horse (n = 10) foals. Plasma AA, PAC, and dROMs were assessed at 3 to 12 hours, 3 days, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age.

PROCEDURES

AA was measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. PAC and dROMs were measured with a free radical analytical system. Comparisons of AA, PAC, and dROMs at different time points were assessed.

RESULTS

Mean ± standard deviation AA concentrations at 3 to 12 hours (44.7 ± 19.6 μmol/L; P ≤ .01), 1 (48.6 ± 22.5 μmol/L; P ≤ .001), and 2 weeks (41.8 ± 15.8 μmol/L; P ≤ .001) were higher than at 4 weeks of age (28.5 ± 12.7 μmol/L). Both PAC and dROMs significantly increased at different time points compared to 3 to 12 hours of age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Healthy foals have higher plasma AA concentrations shortly after birth, which then gradually decrease throughout the first month of life, suggesting that AA may represent a key antioxidant in the postnatal period. The concurrent increase in PAC and dROMs suggests that dynamic development of oxidative balance occurs after birth in foals. Development of AA, PAC, and dROM reference ranges in healthy foals could be used to guide therapeutic interventions and monitor during disease states characterized by increased oxidative stress.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Determine the effect of sample holding time and single sample reuse on viscoelastic coagulation parameters when using fresh equine native whole blood.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult horses from a university teaching herd.

PROCEDURES

Blood collected by direct jugular venipuncture (18 ga needle, 3 mL syringe) was held at 37 °C for 2, 4, 6, or 8 minutes according to 1 of 2 protocols. Syringes were gently inverted twice, a small amount of blood was expressed, testing cartridges were filled, and placed within the VCM-Vet™ device (Entegrion Inc). Protocol A: samples were processed from a single syringe. Protocol B: 4 syringes were drawn through a single needle. VCM-Vet™ measures assessed included clot time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle (AA), amplitude at 10/20 minutes (A10/A20), maximal clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index at 30/45 minutes (LI30/LI45). Differences over time were examined using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test with Bonferroni correction, P ≤ .05.

RESULTS

Following Protocol A, there was a significant effect of holding time for CT (P = .02), CFT (P = .04), and AA (P = .05). CT and AA decreased over time, while CFT increased. Samples handled by Protocol B showed no significant difference over time for any of the VCM-Vet™ parameters.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sample holding time and handling protocol impact VCM-Vet™ testing results of fresh equine native whole blood. Viscoelastic coagulation samples tested using the VCM-Vet™ may be held unagitated for up to 8 minutes after collection while warm, but should not be reused.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research