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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Describe the pharmacokinetics of grapiprant administered orally with food to red-tailed hawks (RTHAs; Buteo jamaicensis) and compare the results with previously described grapiprant pharmacokinetics administered without food in this species.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult RTHA (3 males, 3 females) under human care.

PROCEDURES

A single dose of grapiprant (30 mg/kg) was given orally to RTHAs, followed by force-feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 14 time points for 120 hours postgrapiprant administration. Plasma concentrations of grapiprant were measured via tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonparametric superimposition using pharmacokinetic modeling software used plasma concentrations to calculate simulations of grapiprant plasma concentrations for 30 mg/kg administered orally with food every 12 hours.

RESULTS

The arithmetic mean maximum plasma concentration was 405.8 ng/mL, time to maximum plasma concentration was 16 hours, and harmonic mean terminal half-life was 15.6 hours. Simulations determined 30 mg/kg every 12 hours could attain minimum effective concentrations (> 164 ng/mL) reported in dogs for a sustained period of approximately 20 hours.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Grapiprant plasma concentrations were achieved above the canine therapeutic concentrations within 16 hours postmedication. Mean concentrations were maintained for approximately 20 hours. Simulations support a dosing frequency of 12-hour intervals with food reaching minimum effective concentrations established for canines, although it is unknown whether these plasma concentrations are therapeutic for birds. Bioaccumulation was not noted on simulations secondary to increased grapiprant administration. Further research including multidose assessments at this current dose with food, in vitro pharmacological characterization, and pharmacodynamic studies in this species are warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolite, hydromorphone-3-glucuronide (H3G), after a single IV and IM dose in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult great horned owls (3 females and 3 males).

PROCEDURES

A single dose of hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg) was administered once IM (pectoral muscles) and IV (left jugular) with a 6-week washout period between experiments. Blood samples were collected at 5 minutes and 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone and H3G concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental analysis was used for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters.

RESULTS

Hydromorphone had a high bioavailability of 170.8 ± 37.6% and rapid elimination after IM administration and rapid plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution after IV administration. Mean Cmax was 225.46 ± 0.2 ng/mL at 13 minutes after IM injection. Mean volume of distribution and plasma drug clearance was 4.29 ± 0.5 L/kg and 62.11 ± 14.6 mL/min/kg, respectively, after IV administration. Mean t1/2 was 1.62 ± 0.36 and 1.35 ± 0.59 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively. The metabolite H3G was readily measured shortly after administration by both routes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A single dose of 0.6 mg/kg was well tolerated in all birds. Hydromorphone rapidly attained plasma concentrations following IM administration and had high bioavailability and short t1/2. This study is the first to document the presence of the metabolite H3G in avian species, which suggests similar hydromorphone metabolism as in mammals.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research