To describe patterns of antimicrobial prescriptions for sporadic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs in the United States from 2010 through 2019, including times before and after publication of International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Disease (ISCAID) guidelines.
461,244 qualifying visits for sporadic UTIs.
Veterinary electronic medical records of a private corporation consisting of > 1,000 clinics across the United States were examined to identify canine visits for potential sporadic UTI between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Proportions of antimicrobial prescriptions were graphed by month and year to identify changes in prescription patterns over time. Interrupted time series analysis was performed for the aminopenicillins.
A total of 461,244 qualifying visits were examined, with 389,949 (85%) of these resulting in at least 1 antimicrobial prescription. Over the 10-year period, the proportion of visits resulting in no antimicrobial prescription increased (14% in 2010 to 19.7% in 2019). Proportions of prescriptions for amoxicillin (38% to 48%) and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (2.5% to 10%) also increased. Log-linear regression supported that changes in proportions of amoxicillin and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid prescriptions occurred following the 2011 ISCAID guidelines publication, with the proportion of amoxicillin prescriptions increasing by 13% per year (95% CI, 12% to 14%; P < 0.01) and the proportion of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid prescriptions increasing by 0.5% per year (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.8%; P < 0.01). Use of fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins remained constant.
Results suggest that efforts to guide antimicrobial use in veterinary clinical practice are having positive effects in this private veterinary company, though continued efforts are warranted.
To characterize gastrointestinal transit times (GITTs) and pH in dogs, and to compare to data recently described for cats.
7 healthy, colony-housed Beagles.
The GITTs and pH were measured using a continuous pH monitoring system. For the first period (prefeeding), food was withheld for 20 hours followed by pH capsule administration. Five hours after capsule administration, dogs were offered 75% of their historical daily caloric intake for 1 hour. For the second period (postfeeding), food was withheld for 24 hours. Dogs were allowed 1 hour to eat, followed by capsule administration. Both periods were repeated 3 times. The GITTs and pH were compared to published feline data.
The mean ± SD transit times in dogs for the pre- and postfeeding periods, respectively, were esophageal, 3 ± 5 minutes and 13 ± 37 minutes; gastric, 31 ± 60 minutes and 829 ± 249 minutes; and intestinal, 795 ± 444 minutes and 830 ± 368 minutes. The mean ± SD gastrointestinal pH in dogs for the pre- and postfeeding periods, respectively, were esophageal, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 1.0; gastric, 3.0 ± 1.4 and 1.8 ± 0.3; intestinal, 7.9 ± 0.3 and 7.7 ± 0.6; first-hour small intestinal, 7.6 ± 0.5 and 7.1 ± 0.4; and last-hour large intestinal, 7.9 ± 0.6 and 7.7 ± 1.0. The first-hour small intestinal pH and total transit times varied between dogs and cats depending on feed period (P = .002 and P = .04, respectively). Post hoc analysis revealed significantly shorter total transit times in dogs prefeeding (P = .005; mean ± SD for cats, 2,441 ± 1,359 minutes; for dogs, 828 ± 439 minutes) and postfeeding (P = .03; mean ± SD for cats, 3,009 ± 1,220 minutes; for dogs, 1,671 ± 513 minutes). Total transit time for dogs was also shorter pre- versus postfeeding (P = .003).
GITT is faster in Beagles compared to cats, but gastrointestinal pH are similar when fed the same diet.