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  • Author or Editor: Margaux Blondel x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.

ANIMALS

10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.

PROCEDURES

The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.

RESULTS

IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the prevalence of elbow dysplasia (ED) in 13 dog breeds in France.

ANIMALS

A total of 18,870 elbow radiographs taken from 2002 to 2022 were evaluated by 2 independent examiners.

METHODS

For each breed, the incidence of each of the 4 International Elbow Working Group scoring classes was extracted from the database. Breeds were excluded if fewer than 150 radiographs had been read for that breed.

RESULTS

This study included 17,861 records for 13 dog breeds: American Akita, Alaskan Malamute, Old German Shepherd (Altdeutscher Schäferhund), American Staffordshire Terrier, Australian Shepherd, Belgian Shepherd, White Swiss Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cane Corso, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Rottweiler, and Dogue de Bordeaux. The overall prevalence of ED was 11.4%, ranging from 1.1% in the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog to 32.2% in the Dogue de Bordeaux. The Dogue de Bordeaux, Rottweiler, Bernese Mountain Dog, and Cane Corso breeds were most commonly affected by ED. The prevalence of ED was significantly higher in male dogs than in female dogs (17.5% vs 10.5%, P < .05). Joint incongruity and fragmented coronoid process were the 2 most common primary ED lesions identified. The prevalence of ED among the dogs evaluated decreased over the timeframe of the study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results of this study help to clarify the prevalence of ED in different breeds in France. These data should be interpreted with caution as this study included a small percentage of the total number of dogs born for each breed in France over the study period.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research