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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study aims to assess intrathecal mepivacaine for euthanasia in anesthetized horses and compare it to a traditional euthanasia method using a single intravenous injection of pentobarbital in sedated horses.

ANIMALS

Client-owned horses and horses requiring euthanasia due to involvement in concurrent research projects were used. Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: intrathecal mepivacaine after anesthesia or intravenous pentobarbital after sedation. All horses had normal vital parameters and no signs of infectious disease at the time of euthanasia.

PROCEDURES

The intrathecal mepivacaine group was anesthetized before the intrathecal injection of mepivacaine. The pentobarbital group was sedated, concurrently anesthetized and euthanized using intravenous pentobarbital, then received an intrathecal saline (0.9% NaCl) solution injection to a blind observer. Both groups were sedated with detomidine and the time from sedation to the cessation of vital parameters (respirations, pulse, corneal reflex, and ECG) was recorded. Euthanasias were recorded for review by a blinded anesthesiologist, using an independent scale to assess the quality of sedation, anesthesia induction, and lateral recumbency.

RESULTS

Time from detomidine administration to cessation of each vital parameter was significantly longer in the intrathecal mepivacaine group. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative scores between groups for sedation or induction, but lateral recumbency was subjectively superior in the anesthetized intrathecal mepivacaine group.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intrathecal mepivacaine provided a safe, effective, alternative method of euthanasia to intravenous pentobarbital and addresses concerns about barbiturate availability. This study also informs practitioners of what to expect (ie, longer cessation of vital parameters) when using the intrathecal mepivacaine method.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to determine plasma, urine, and synovial fluid concentrations and describe the effects on biomarkers of cartilage toxicity following intra-articular dexmedetomidine administration to horses.

ANIMALS

12 research horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses received a single intra-articular administration of 1 μg/kg or 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine or saline. Plasma, urine, and synovial fluid were collected prior to and up to 48 hours postadministration, and concentrations were determined. The effects on CS846 and C2C were determined in synovial fluid at 0, 12, and 24 hours postadministration using immunoassays.

RESULTS

Plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine fell below the limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.005 ng/mL) by 2.5 and 8 hours postadministration of 1 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. Synovial fluid concentrations were above the LOQ (0.1 ng/mL) of the assay at 24 hours in both dose groups. Drug was not detected in urine samples at any time postdrug administration. CS846 concentrations were significantly decreased relative to baseline at 12 hours postadministration in the saline group and significantly increased in the 5-μg/kg-dose group at 24 hours. Concentrations of C2C were significantly decreased at 12 and 24 hours postadministration in the saline treatment group. There were no significant differences in CS846 or C2C concentrations between dose groups at any time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Systemic concentrations of dexmedetomidine remained low, compared to synovial fluid concentrations. CS846, a marker of articular cartilage synthesis, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on these findings, further dose titration and investigation of analgesic and adverse effects are warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of various combinations of acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, hydromorphone, and glycopyrrolate, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult female Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were instrumented for hemodynamic measurements while anesthetized with isoflurane. Two hours after recovery, dogs received 1 of 4 IM combinations in a crossover design with 1 week between treatments: hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.005 mg/kg; HA); hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine (0.0025 mg/kg; HD); hydromorphone, acepromazine, and dexmedetomidine (HAD); and hydromorphone, acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, and glycopyrrolate (0.02 mg/kg; HADG). Sedation was scored after 30 minutes. Physiologic variables and cardiac index were measured after sedation, after anesthetic induction with propofol, and every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane for 60 minutes (target expired concentration at 760 mm Hg, 1.3%).

RESULTS

Sedation scores were not significantly different among treatments. Mean ± SD cardiac index was significantly higher for the HA (202 ± 45 mL/min/kg) and HADG (185 ± 59 mL/min/kg) treatments than for the HD (88 ± 31 mL/min/kg) and HAD (103 ± 25 mL/min/kg) treatments after sedation and through the first 15 minutes of isoflurane anesthesia. No ventricular arrhythmias were noted with any treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In healthy dogs, IM administration of HADG before propofol and isoflurane anesthesia provided acceptable cardiopulmonary function with no adverse effects. This combination should be considered for routine anesthetic premedication in healthy dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single bolus of intravenous (IV) propofol after intramuscular administration of etorphine, butorphanol, medetomidine, and azaperone in 5 southern white rhinoceros to facilitate reproductive evaluations. A specific consideration was whether propofol would facilitate timely orotracheal intubation.

ANIMALS

5 adult, female, zoo-maintained southern white rhinoceros.

PROCEDURES

Rhinoceros were administered etorphine (0.002 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 to 0.026 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.023 to 0.025 mg/kg), and azaperone (0.014 to 0.017 mg/kg) intramuscularly (IM) prior to an IV dose of propofol (0.5 mg/kg). Physiologic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and capnography), timed parameters (eg, time to initial effects and intubation), and quality of induction and intubation were recorded following drug administration. Venous blood was collected for analysis of plasma propofol concentrations using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at various time points after propofol administration.

RESULTS

All animals were approachable following IM drug administration, and orotracheal intubation was achieved at 9.8 ± 2.0 minutes (mean ±SD) following propofol administration. The mean clearance for propofol was 14.2 ± 7.7 ml/min/kg, the mean terminal half-life was 82.4 ± 74.4 minutes, and the maximum concentration occurred at 2.8 ± 2.9 minutes. Two of 5 rhinoceros experienced apnea after propofol administration. Initial hypertension, which improved without intervention, was observed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides pharmacokinetic data and insight into the effects of propofol in rhinoceros anesthetized using etorphine, butorphanol, medetomidine, and azaperone. While apnea was observed in 2 rhinoceros, propofol administration allowed for rapid control of the airway and facilitated oxygen administration and ventilatory support.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research