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Evaluate agreement between 2 non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) techniques and invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) in anesthetized bats using various cuff sizes and cuff positioning while also evaluating its performance during hypertension and hypotension.


8 bats (1.1 ± 0.2 kg).


Bats were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. NIBP was measured using oscillometric (NIBP-O) and Doppler (NIBP-D) techniques in the pectoral limb (PEC) and pelvic limbs (PEL) using 3 cuff sizes (1, 2, and 3). NIBP measurements were compared with IBP; systolic (SAPinvasive), mean (MAPinvasive), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAPinvasive) during normotension, hypertension, and hypotension. Hypotension was induced with isoflurane (3.8 ± 1.2%) and hypertension with norepinephrine (3 ± 0.5 µg/kg/min). Data analysis included Bland-Altman analyses and 3-way ANOVA. Results were reported as mean bias (95% CI).


NIBP-O monitor reported 29% errors, and experienced more failures with hypertension, cuff placement on PEC, and using a size 1 cuff. Across states, an agreement between NIBP-D and MAPinvasive with cuff 2 on PEL (−3 mmHg [−8, 1]), and NIBP-D and SAPinvasive with cuff 3 on PEC (2 mmHg [−5, 9 mmHg]) was achieved. NIBP-D over-estimated SAPinvasive and MAPinvasive during hypertension in both limbs with cuffs 1 and 2. Except during hypotension, NIBP-O underestimated MAPinvasive and DAPinvasive using a size 2 cuff on PEL.


In anesthetized bats, NIBP-O is unreliable for estimating IBP. NIBP-D shows acceptable agreement with MAPinvasive with cuff size 2 on PEL, and with SAPinvasive with cuff size 3 on PEC across a wide range of IBP values.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research