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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate caregivers’ assessments of outcome in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) administered levetiracetam (LEV), zonisamide (ZNS), or phenobarbital (PB) monotherapy.

ANIMALS

100 dogs with IE administered LEV (n = 34), ZNS (31), or PB (35) monotherapy between January 1, 2003, and February 6, 2019, and survey responses from their caregivers.

PROCEDURES

Information on duration of therapy, adverse effects (AEs), and outcome was obtained from medical record review and caregiver questionnaire.

RESULTS

A significant improvement in mean quality of life score was reported during monotherapy (7.7; SD, 2.14) compared to before treatment (6.25; SD, 2.63; P < .0001), with no difference identified between monotherapy groups. Compared to ZNS monotherapy, dogs prescribed PB monotherapy had a significantly younger median age at seizure onset (2.6 vs 4.3 years; P = .024). A significant relationship was identified between the occurrence of reported AEs and monotherapy group, with a higher prevalence in the PB group (77% [27/35]) and a lower prevalence in the ZNS group (39% [12/31]; P = .0066). Treatment failure rates for PB, LEV, and ZNS monotherapy were 51%, 35%, and 45%, respectively, with failure attributed most commonly to inadequate seizure control. No significant difference was identified between groups with respect to rate of or time to failure.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most caregivers reported a favorable outcome with administration of LEV, ZNS, or PB monotherapy to dogs with IE. Phenobarbital is associated with the highest prevalence of AEs but no difference in quality of life score. Prospective controlled studies are needed to further compare the efficacy and safety of these monotherapies in dogs with IE.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cytarabine delivery as a subcutaneous continuous-rate infusion with the Omnipod system.

ANIMALS

6 client-owned dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology were enrolled through the North Carolina State University Veterinary Hospital.

PROCEDURES

Cytarabine was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/m2/hour as an SC continuous-rate infusion over 8 hours using the Omnipod system. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after initiation of the infusion. Plasma cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects approach generated population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.

RESULTS

The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL), average time to Cmax was 7 hours (range, 4 to 8 hours; SD, 1.67 hours), terminal half-life was 1.13 hours (SD, 0.29 hour), and the mean area under the curve was 52,996.82 hours X μg/mL (range, 35,963.67 to 71,848.37 hours X μg/mL; SD, 12,960.90 hours X μg/mL). Cmax concentrations for all dogs were more than 1,000 ng/mL (1.0 μg/mL) at the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-hour time points.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

An SC continuous-rate infusion of cytarabine via the Omnipod system is feasible in dogs and was able to achieve a steady-state concentration of more than 1 μg/mL 4 to 10 hours postinitiation of cytarabine and a Cmax of 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL). These are comparable to values reported previously with IV continuous-rate infusion administration in healthy research Beagles and dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research