Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jennifer L. Davis x
  • Refine by Access: Open Access articles x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the elution characteristics of amikacin-impregnated calcium sulfate (CaSO4) beads based on different drug concentrations and bead size configurations.

SAMPLE

Six groups of amikacin-impregnated CaSO4 beads and one negative control group.

PROCEDURES

Amikacin-impregnated CaSO4 beads were formed with either 500 mg (low-concentration) or 1 g (high-concentration) of amikacin per 15 g CaSO4 hemihydrate powder. The number of beads necessary to approximate 150 mg of amikacin for each of the 3 bead sizes (3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm) at both low and high concentrations were placed in 6 mL of phosphate-buffered saline. The saline was sampled at 14 time points over 28 days. Amikacin concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

Smaller beads reached higher mean peak concentrations than larger beads (P < .0006). Peak concentrations for the low- and high-concentration groups were 20.5 mg/mL and 27.4 mg/mL, 13.1 mg/mL and 14.0 mg/mL, and 8.85 mg/mL and 6.75 mg/mL for the 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm beads, respectively. Bead size also affected the length of therapeutic duration, lasting 6 days for the 3 mm and 5 mm beads and 9 days for the 7 mm beads. However, this was only statistically evident among the high-concentration beads (P < .044). Antimicrobial concentration within the same bead sizes did not affect elution.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Amikacin-impregnated CaSO4 beads achieved extreme supratherapeutic eluent concentrations. While additional studies are needed, bead size significantly affected elution with smaller beads reaching higher peak concentrations and 7 mm, high-concentration beads demonstrating a longer therapeutic duration than smaller beads.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Plasma cytokine adsorption has shown benefit as an adjunctive therapy in human sepsis but has yet to be investigated in horses. We hypothesized that ex vivo filtration of equine plasma with a novel cytokine adsorption device would significantly reduce concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokines. We also hypothesized that the device would adsorb medications commonly used to treat sepsis.

ANIMALS

8 horses owned by North Carolina State University.

METHODS

Four liters of heparinized whole blood was collected from healthy adult horses (n = 8) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/mL) for 6 hours (37 °C.) from June 4, 2023, to December 15, 2023. Plasma was filtered through a cytokine adsorption device or sham circuit. Samples were collected at 11 time points for multiplex cytokine analysis. Chemistry analysis was performed before and after filtration. To investigate the impact of the device on medication concentrations, equine plasma containing potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine was filtered through the cytokine adsorption device or sham for 6 hours. Drug concentrations before and after filtration were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefiltration versus postfiltration sample concentrations were analyzed by Student paired t test using GraphPad Prism 9.0 (P < .05).

RESULTS

Filtration of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated equine plasma (n = 8) for 6 hours resulted in significant mean reductions in the cytokines IL-10, IL-5, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β, as well as albumin. Drug concentrations of potassium penicillin, gentamicin, and flunixin meglumine were also significantly reduced by filtration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This work provides proof of concept for further investigation of extracorporeal cytokine adsorption as a potential adjunct treatment for equine sepsis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research