To determine whether dogs with cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R) deficiency have a constitutive proinflammatory phenotype, characterize hematologic and serum chemistry results, and describe changes in methemoglobin (MetHb) levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations after long-term per os (PO) methylene blue (MB) therapy.
In this prospective, case-control study, methemoglobin levels were measured using a blood gas analyzer with co-oximetry. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations were measured using a canine-specific multiplex bead-based assay. Serum CRP concentrations were measured with a canine-specific commercial ELISA kit. Serum CRP concentration and MetHb levels were measured in 6 dogs with CYB5R deficiency after ≥ 60 days of PO MB therapy.
As expected, MetHb levels were higher in dogs with CYB5R deficiency compared to controls (P < .001). Plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and serum CRP concentrations were no different between CYB5R-deficient and control dogs. Dogs with CYB5R deficiency had lower absolute lymphocyte (P = .005) and eosinophil counts (P = .04) and higher alanine transaminase (P = .04) and alkaline phosphatase activity (P = .02) than controls, but these changes were not clinically relevant. Methemoglobin levels decreased after PO MB therapy (P = .03).
These results suggest that otherwise healthy dogs with CYB5R deficiency do not have a constitutive proinflammatory phenotype and clinically relevant abnormalities in hematologic and serum chemistry panels are not expected. Dogs with decreased quality of life attributed to methemoglobinemia from CYB5R deficiency might benefit from PO MB therapy.
To identify prognostic indicators and inflammatory markers associated with nonsurvival in dogs with gallbladder mucoceles (GBMs) following cholecystectomy and to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with GBMs compared to healthy controls.
25 dogs that underwent cholecystectomy for removal of GBM and 20 healthy control dogs.
A prospective, multicenter cohort study. Survival outcomes to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge were recorded from medical records. Laboratory variables, inflammatory markers (CRP and haptoglobin), and 25-hydroxyvitamin(OH) D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured preoperatively. Associations between signalment, clinicopathologic variables, acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation (APPLEFAST) scores, inflammatory markers, 25(OH)D concentration, and survival were analyzed using logistic regression.
76% (19/25) and 68% (17/25) of dogs survived to hospital discharge and 2 weeks postdischarge, respectively. For each additional year of age, the odds of nonsurvival in hospital and 2 weeks postdischarge increased by 2.2 (P = .01; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.0) and 1.7 (P = .04; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.2), respectively. Intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg increased the probability of nonsurvival in hospital (P < .04). Gallbladder perforation, APPLEFAST scores, and preoperative serum concentrations of CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with survival. Serum CRP and haptoglobin concentrations were greater in dogs with GBM compared to controls (P < .001).
Increasing age and intraoperative systolic blood pressure ≤ 65 mm Hg were associated with nonsurvival in dogs with GBM undergoing cholecystectomy. Serum CRP, haptoglobin, and 25(OH)D were not associated with nonsurvival postcholecystectomy in this sample population.