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  • Author or Editor: Hussni O. Mohammed x
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To determine setting and temperature properties of diluted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in vitro to assess utility for vocal fold augmentation in horses.


4 dilutions of PMMA equivalent to volumes of 15 mL, 20 mL, 25 mL, and 30 mL PMMA powder (PMMAp) in 10 mL solvent.


For each volume PMMAp, setting times (tset), peak temperatures (Tmax), and times to peak temperature (tmax) were determined using a temperature data logger in a 4-mL volume of PMMA. Injectability was assessed in vitro by documenting the force required to inject 0.2 mL PMMA through an 18-gauge 3.5-inch spinal needle attached to a 6-mL syringe at 1-minute intervals. Working time (twork) was calculated from a linear regression of injectability.


Peak temperatures increased with increasing volume of PMMAp: 56 °C, 86 °C, 99 °C, and 101 °C. Times for tset, twork, and tmax were inversely proportional to PMMA concentrations, resulting in tset of 23, 21, 17, and 14 minutes; twork of 22.75, 12.25, 7, and 4 minutes; and tmax of 28, 24, 19, and 16 minutes, respectively, for 15, 20, 25, and 30 mL PMMAp. Pairwise comparisons for all analyses were significant apart from Tmax for 25 and 30 mL PMMAp (P = .96) and twork for 20 and 25 mL PMMAp (P = .06).


Decreasing the concentration of PMMA bone cement resulted in longer working times and setting times; however, peak temperatures did not differ between the 2 strongest concentrations. Further research is warranted to quantify diluted PMMA properties for in vivo use for vocal fold augmentation in horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research