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  • Author or Editor: Hugues Beaufrère x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-midazolam (AKM) and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

9 male black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES

Prairie dogs were anesthetized with AKM (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam) and AKD (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg dexmedetomidine) in a prospective, complete cross-over study. Atipamezole (1.5 mg/kg) after AKD or flumazenil (0.1mg/kg) after AKM was administered 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Onset of general anesthesia, physiologic parameters, depth of anesthesia, and time to recovery after reversal administration were evaluated for each treatment.

RESULTS

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs that varied in duration. The median induction times for AKM and AKD were 82 and 60 seconds, respectively. The median recovery times for AKM and AKD were 27 and 21 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between protocols for induction (P = .37) and recovery (P = .51) times. All measured reflexes were absent in all animals at 5 minutes postinduction, with hindlimb reflexes returning prior to forelimb reflexes. Heart rate was lower but respiratory rate was higher in the AKD treatment. Body temperature decreased significantly for both protocols (P < .001) and was significantly lower with AKM than AKD (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs. For both protocols, heat support and oxygen support are indicated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate a carrageenan-induced inflammatory model in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using weight-bearing load, rotational perch locomotion, thermal threshold withdrawal, and footpad dimensions.

ANIMALS

16 adult cockatiels (8 males and 8 females).

PROCEDURES

Cockatiels were randomly assigned into 2 groups as either treatment (carrageenan injection; n = 8) or control (handling only; 8). Treatment of cockatiels involved unilateral subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Control birds were handled in a similar manner without an injection. Following baseline measurements and treatment or control procedures, posttreatment measurements at multiple time points involving weight-bearing perch load (for up to 336 hours), locomotive abilities when placed on a rotating perch (for up to 96 hours), thermal withdrawal threshold (for the 24- to 30-hour period), and both vertical and horizontal left footpad size and degree of swelling (for up to 84 days) were obtained.

RESULTS

Treatment cockatiels had a significant decrease in left foot weight-bearing load and increase in left footpad dimensions and swelling grade over time compared to control cockatiels. Rotational perch locomotion and thermal withdrawal threshold, conversely, did not differ significantly between groups. Cockatiels injected with carrageenan returned to normal weight-bearing within 2 weeks; however, left footpad dimensions did not return to baseline.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Carrageenan footpad injection prompts a measurable and grossly visible inflammatory response in the cockatiel. Additionally, it induces alterations in weight-bearing distribution in injected birds. This model provides a method to evaluate inflammation and lameness in small psittacine species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare stress markers, gastrointestinal motility, and behavioral indicators of pain between guinea pigs undergoing pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) and control guinea pigs.

ANIMALS

Fourteen 4- to 5-month-old intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were randomized to receive insufflation or serve as controls (anesthesia and abdominal catheter placement without insufflation), with 7 animals/group. Insufflated animals underwent 6 mm Hg of CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 30 minutes. Afterward, results for vital signs, blood glucose, fecal cortisol, appetite, fecal output, and behaviors (via video recording) were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There was no difference between groups and over time for body temperature, heart rate, fecal output in grams, pellets consumed, blood glucose, and fecal cortisol. Guinea pigs that underwent insufflation had significantly more fecal pellets at 36 hours after the procedure. Several behaviors were expressed similarly between groups and over time, such as body turns, incomplete movement, rearing, lying down, drinking, and hiding. Coprophagy occurred less often in the insufflated versus noninsufflated group at 12 h postprocedure but was similar between groups at other time points. At 60 hours after the procedure, insufflated animals spent less time squinting compared to noninsufflated animals. Other behaviors were differentially expressed over time but not between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, there were no major differences in appetite, stress markers, and behaviors between insufflated and control guinea pigs. CO2 insufflation did not appear to cause undue pain or stress in guinea pigs and may be a reasonable technique to use during laparoscopy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate pneumoperitoneal volumes (laparoscopic working space) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) undergoing pneumoperitoneum via carbon dioxide insufflation at different intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) (4, 6, and 8 mm Hg) and recumbencies (dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral).

ANIMALS

Six 3- to 4-month-old sexually intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and had an abdominal insufflation catheter placed. A baseline abdominal CT scan was performed. Guinea pigs underwent insufflation, with each IAP given in a random order for 10 to 15 minutes with a washout period of 5 minutes between pressures. Abdominal CT scans were acquired at each IAP and at each recumbency. Pneumoperitoneal volumes were calculated using software.

RESULTS

Increases in IAP increased working space significantly (P < .001). The 6- and 8-mm Hg pressures increased working space from 4 mm Hg by 7.3% and 19.8%, respectively. Recumbent positioning (P = .60) and body weight (P = .73) did not affect working space. Order of IAP had a significant (P = .006) effect on working space. One of the guinea pigs experienced oxygen desaturation and bradycardia at 6- and 8-mm Hg IAP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although an increased working space occurred at 6 and 8 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg, further research is needed concerning the cardiovascular effects of pneumoperitoneum in guinea pigs to determine whether those higher IAPs are safe in this species. An IAP of 6 mm Hg can be considered for laparoscopic cannula placement, followed by a lower IAP for laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research