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  • Author or Editor: Heidi E. Banse x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare small intestinal inflammation with gastric inflammation in horses with and without equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD), we evaluated endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic findings of the glandular stomach and microscopic findings of the small intestine.

ANIMALS

36 horses.

METHODS

Horses underwent endoscopy and were scored for EGGD. After euthanasia, stomachs were collected and macroscopically evaluated. Normal pyloric mucosa, glandular lesions, and small intestinal (duodenum, mid-jejunum, and ileum) samples were collected and processed for microscopic examination. Cellular infiltrate was scored. Immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD20, and Iba-1) was performed on the ventral pylorus and small intestine of horses with mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. A Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship of EGGD grade with gastric glandular inflammation, and the relationships of cellular infiltrate type and severity among glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

RESULTS

Gastrointestinal inflammation was common, with gastric inflammatory infiltrate identified in 92%, duodenal inflammatory infiltrate in 83%, jejunal inflammatory infiltrate in 92%, and ileal inflammatory infiltrate in 92% of horses. Endoscopic evidence of gastric disease (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4) was not associated with the presence or severity of duodenal, jejunal, or ileal inflammation. Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2 was associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2. This was a convenience sample of horses presenting for euthanasia. Medical history (including deworming history) was unknown.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation is associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation but not more distal small intestinal inflammation. Intestinal inflammation is not associated with endoscopic findings (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the role of equine herpesvirus-2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus-5 (EHV-5) in equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) by visualizing and quantifying these gamma herpesviruses in EGGD-affected and normal glandular gastric mucosa of horses. A secondary objective was to describe the histopathological abnormalities in the equine gastric glandular mucosa in horses with EGGD.

ANIMALS

29 horses (n = 21 postmortem and 8 gastroscopy) categorized as normal (11), EGGD (12), or both EGGD and equine squamous gastric disease (6).

METHODS

Glandular gastric mucosal samples were collected from horses by gastroscopy or postmortem. Histopathology and in situ hybridization targeting EHV-2 and EHV-5 were performed on grossly normal and abnormal glandular gastric mucosa. The number of in situ hybridization-positive cells per millimeter squared of tissue was calculated. Evaluators were blinded to groups.

RESULTS

Glandular gastric tissues from horses without EGGD had higher viral loads in the mucosa than normal or abnormal tissues from EGGD horses. There was no difference in viral loads for EHV-2 or EHV-5 between grossly or endoscopically normal to abnormal gastric tissues within horses with EGGD. Lymphocytic plasmacytic gastritis was the most common histopathological abnormality, with only 3 horses having mucosal disruption (glandular ulcer or erosion).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Equine gamma herpesviruses are unlikely to play a role in the pathophysiology of EGGD. EGGD is frequently inflammatory with occasional mucosal disruption (ulcer or erosion).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research