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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone administered SC in four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult hedgehogs.

METHODS

Hedgehogs underwent 2 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, complete crossover studies. Hind limb withdrawal latencies in response to an acute thermal noxious stimulus were measured to evaluate the antinociceptive efficacy of hydromorphone. Baseline latencies were obtained prior to injection and collected again at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours following injection. Based on pilot studies, single doses of SC hydromorphone at 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg were evaluated for efficacy in crossover trials. Safety of single (0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg) and multiple doses of hydromorphone (0.3 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h, for 3 doses) was also assessed. In addition to monitoring behavior during latency measurements, animals were evaluated for overt sedation and daily changes in food intake, body weight, and running wheel activity for 6 days after injection to evaluate for adverse effects.

RESULTS

Hydromorphone at 0.15 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 4 hours, and 0.3 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 6 hours. Hydromorphone produced transient abnormal behaviors at both doses, including vocalization, chewing motions of the jaw, and paw raising. There were no statistically significant differences in body weight or running wheel activity between treatments for single or multiple doses of hydromorphone. Three doses of 0.3 mg/kg hydromorphone (q 4 h) produced a statistically significant decrease (median, –9.7%; range, –64% to 10%) in 6-day total food intake.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous hydromorphone (0.15 to 0.3 mg/kg) can be used for short-term antinociception with transient adverse effects in hedgehogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of SC methadone in four-toed hedgehogs.

ANIMALS

9 to 12 healthy adult four-toed hedgehogs (7 to 9 males and 3 females).

METHODS

Hedgehogs underwent 3 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, complete crossover studies. Hind limb withdrawal latencies in response to an acute thermal noxious stimulus were measured to evaluate the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone. Single doses of SC methadone were evaluated at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg for dose-dependent effects. Additionally, methadone (1.5 mg/kg) was administered at different concentrations to assess the effect of injection volume on antinociceptive efficacy. Finally, the safety of multiple doses of methadone (1.5 mg/kg, SC, q 2 h, for 3 doses) was also evaluated. In addition to monitoring behavior during latency measurements, animals were assessed for overt sedation. Food intake, body weight, and running wheel activity were assessed daily for 6 days following methadone administration to evaluate for adverse effects.

RESULTS

Methadone at 1 and 1.5 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 2 hours, and injection volume had no significant effect on efficacy. Methadone at 0.5 mg/kg did not induce antinociception. Methadone produced transient abnormal behaviors in all hedgehogs, with more animals affected at the 1.5-mg/kg dose. Behaviors included periods of standing motionless, vocalization, chewing motions, and paw raising. Single- or multiple-dose administration of methadone had no significant effect on total food intake, body weight, or running wheel activity.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results of this study provide additional information on providing analgesia to hedgehogs. Subcutaneous methadone (1 to 1.5 mg/kg) can be used for short-term antinociception in hedgehogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research