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  • Author or Editor: George E. Moore x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use proteomic analysis to identify qualitatively and quantitatively mammalian protein components of commercial veterinary vaccines against canine distemper, leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies.

SAMPLE

25 licensed veterinary vaccines (from 4 different manufacturers) against canine distemper and leptospirosis, borreliosis, and rabies (3-year and 1-year durations of immunity).

PROCEDURES

Duplicate samples from a single-lot vial of each vaccine were prepared by acetone precipitation and proteolysis with trypsin and Lys-C protease mix. Peptides mixtures (1 μg) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy data were searched against a Bos taurus protein database using MaxQuant to identify and quantify mammalian proteins in the vaccines. Identified proteins were classified by function and network analysis to visualize interactions.

RESULTS

The largest number of mammalian proteins was identified in 3-year rabies vaccines (median, 243 proteins; range, 184 to 339 proteins) and 1-year rabies vaccines (median, 193 proteins; range, 169 to 350 proteins). Borrelia and leptospirosis-distemper (L&D) vaccines had the lowest number of proteins. Rabies vaccines had the highest number of identified proteins in common (n = 316); 33 were unique to 1-year products and 44 were found in 3-year products. Borrelia and L&D vaccines had 16 and 22 uniquely identified proteins, respectively. The protein classifications were primarily modulators of protein-binding activity, enzymes, transfer-carrier proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, defense-immunity proteins, calcium-binding proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study demonstrates proteomics application to evaluate quality differences among different vaccines, identifying potential stimulants of desirable and undesirable immune responses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of loop diameter of a modified Kessler locking-loop (LL) suture on in vitro tensile strength and gapping characteristics of canine flexor tendon repairs.

SAMPLE

48 cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons from 24 adult medium- to large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Flexor tendons were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 12/group) and repaired with 2-0 polypropylene in a LL pattern with loops measuring 1, 2, 3, or 4 mm in diameter. Biomechanical loads, gap formation between tendon ends, and failure modes were evaluated and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Increasing loop diameter from 1 to 4 mm significantly increased yield (P = .048), peak (P < .001), and failure (P < .001) loads. There were no significant differences in yield, peak, and failure loads between 1- and 2-mm loops. Load to 3-mm gap formation was significantly (P < .001) greater for 4-mm loops, compared with 1-, 2-, and 3-mm loops. Failure mode did not differ significantly among experimental groups, with 46 of 48 (96%) of constructs failing because of suture breakage.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Loop diameter of a LL suture pattern is an important biomechanical variable that influences construct biomechanics of canine tendon suture repairs. Loop diameters > 3 mm are recommended when the size of the tendon allows. Further studies are necessary to determine the in vivo effect of these findings, particularly the effects on tendon blood supply.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the influence of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) graft augmentation on the biomechanical properties and resistance to gap formation in a canine gastrocnemius tendon repair model.

SAMPLE POPULATION

28 canine cadaveric hind limbs.

PROCEDURES

Respective hindlimbs from each dog were randomized to one of two groups (n = 14/group) using a 3-loop–pulley (3LP) pattern alone or 3LP + SDFT graft augmentation. Biomechanical parameters evaluated included yield, peak, and failure loads; tensile loads required to create 1- and 3-mm gap formations; and mode of construct failure.

RESULTS

Mean yield and failure loads for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were 483.6 ± 148.0 N and 478.3 ± 147.9 N, respectively, and were greater compared to the 3LP group (34.2 ± 6.7 N and 34.0 ± 8.0 N, P < .0001). Loads to both 1- and 3-mm gap formations for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were greater compared to 3LP alone (P < .001). Failure modes did not differ between groups (P = .120), with constructs failing most commonly by suture pulling through opposed tendinous tissues whereas SDFT grafts remained intact.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SDFT graft augmentation increased yield, peak, and failure forces 14-fold across all examined biomechanical variables compared to the 3LP group. The 3LP + SDFT graft group required 3.6X and 6.5X greater loads to cause a 1- and 3-mm gap, respectively, between tendon ends. These data support the biomechanical advantages of SDFT graft augmentation to increase repair-site strength and to promote resistance to gap formation of the tenorrhaphy. Additional in vivo studies are required to determine the effect of SDFT augmentation on clinical function and active limb use after graft harvest in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a double Krackow suture pattern (DK), with and without epitendinous suture augmentation (ES), in a canine gastrocnemius tendon (GT) model.

SAMPLE

Paired GTs from 12 adult dog cadavers and 4 control GT.

PROCEDURES

GTs were assigned to 2 groups (n = 12/group). Transverse tenotomy was performed and repaired with a DK or DK + ES. Yield, peak, and failure force, stiffness, occurrence of 1-and 3-mm gapping, and failure mode were examined.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure loads were greater for DK + ES. Yield force was 48% greater for DK + ES (mean ± SD, 149.56 ± 53.26 N) versus DK (101.27 ± 37.17 N; P = 0.017). Peak force was 45% greater for DK + ES P < 0.001). Failure force was 47% greater for DK + ES (193.752 ± 31.43 N) versus DK (131.54 ± 22.28 N; P < 0.001). Construct stiffness was 36% greater for DK + ES (P = 0.04). All 12 DK and 10 of 12 DK + ES repairs produced a 1-mm gap, with all DK and 4 DK + ES repairs producing a 3-mm gap (P < 0.001). Loads required to create a 3-mm gap were significantly greater for DK + ES (P < 0.013). Suture breakage occurred in all DK repairs, which differed from DK + ES, where suture breakage (7/12) and tissue failure (5/12; P = 0.037) predominated.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Augmentation of a primary DK repair with an ES significantly improved construct strength in canine GT constructs while increasing loads required to cause 1- and 3-mm gap formation, respectively. ES augmentation is a simple technique modification that can be used to significantly increase construct strength, compared with DK alone.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the biomechanical properties and gapping characteristics following loop modification of a 3-loop-pulley (3LP) pattern in an ex vivo canine common calcaneal tendon (CCT) avulsion repair model.

SAMPLE

56 skeletally mature hindlimbs from 28 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

The CCTs were randomized to 1 of 4 experimental groups (n = 14/group) then sharply transected at the teno-osseous junction. Groups consisted of a 3LP, 4-loop-pulley (4LP), 5-loop-pulley (5LP), or 6-loop-pulley (6LP) pattern with loops placed 60° apart using size-0 polypropylene. Yield, peak, and failure loads, construct stiffness, loads to produce a 3-mm teno-osseous gap, and failure mode were evaluated and compared between groups.

RESULTS

Yield (P = 0.001), peak (P < 0.001), and failure loads (P < 0.001), construct stiffness (P < 0.001), and loads to 3-mm gap formation (P = 0.005) were all significantly greater for 6LP compared to all other groups. Mode of failure did not differ among groups (P = 0.733) with 75% (42/56) of repairs failing by mechanism of core sutures pulling through the tendinous tissue. Pattern modification by increasing the number of loops increased the repair site strength by 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 times for 4LP, 5LP, and 6LP compared to 3LP, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Increasing the number of suture loops compared to a traditional 3LP repair is a relatively simple technique modification that significantly increases teno-osseous repair site strength and loads required to cause 3-mm gap formation. The results of this study justify further focused investigation of increasing the number of suture loops in vivo for teno-osseous CCT repair in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish the lowest effective dose of commercially available nanoparticulate silver (AgNP) for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), in vitro, and to establish the effect of incorporating AgNP into carriers for sustained release on this antibacterial activity.

SAMPLES

Silver nanoparticle dispersion (0.02 mg/mL) composed of citrate-stabilized, spherical, 10 nm diameter nanoparticles in aqueous buffer.

PROCEDURES

E coli and MRSP were treated with 0.01 mg/mL AgNP. The highest concentration of bacteria where growth was inhibited by AgNP was selected for treatment with 0.01 mg/mL AgNP incorporated 3 carriers for sustained release: calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) beads, poloxamer 407 gel, and gelatin sponge, respectively. The antibacterial activity of AgNP and AgNP incorporated into carriers for sustained release was compared with a mixed linear effects model.

RESULTS

AgNP inhibited bacterial growth at a concentration of 101 for MRSP and 103 for E coli. For MRSP, the treatment group was associated with bacterial growth (P < .001) while the concentration of bacteria and time were not (P = .292 and P = .289, respectively). For E coli, the treatment group and concentration of bacteria were associated with bacterial growth (P < .001 and = .029, respectively) while time was not (P = .095). Poloxamer 407 gel exerted standalone antibacterial activity against both species of bacteria; sponge and CSH beads did not.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

AgNP has antibacterial activity against E coli and MRSP, which can be reduced when incorporated into carriers for sustained release. Poloxamer 407 gel alone and combined with AgNP exerts antibacterial activity against E coli and MRSP.

Open access

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate patient and vaccine factors associated with adverse events (AEs) recorded within 3 days of vaccine administration in a large cohort of dogs.

ANIMALS

4,654,187 dogs vaccinated in 16,087,455 office visits in a 5-year period at 1,119 hospitals of a corporate practice.

METHODS

Electronic medical records of dogs vaccinated between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2020, were searched for diagnoses of possible AEs recorded within 3 days of administration of vaccines without concurrent injectable heartworm preventative. Patient risk factors (age, sex, breed, and weight) and number and type of vaccine were extracted from records. ORs (and 95% CIs) for risk factors were estimated via multivariable logistic regression mixed models with patient as a random effect.

RESULTS

AEs were recorded following 31,197 vaccination visits (0.19%, or 19.4/10,000 visits). Reported AE rates increased from 1 to 4 vaccines administered and among individual vaccines were greatest for rabies vaccine. AE rate was generally inversely related to body weight, with largest rates in dogs ≤ 5 kg. The largest AE rates were noted in French Bulldogs and Dachshunds (ORs > 4 compared to mixed-breed dogs).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Risk factor information can be used to update vaccination protocols and client communication. Breed differences may indicate genetics as the primary risk factor for adverse vaccine reactions following vaccinations.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association