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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate ovary removal surgery times and intraoperative complication rates between a 5-mm Sonicision cordless ultrasonic dissector (SCUD) and 5-mm vessel sealing device (VSD) for laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs.

ANIMALS

Client-owned, intact female dogs (n = 10) presented for elective laparoscopic ovariectomy.

METHODS

In each dog, 1 ovarian pedicle was randomly assigned to the SCUD group and 1 to the VSD group. In the SCUD group (n = 10), the ovariectomy was performed using the SCUD device; the ovariectomy in the VSD group (10) was performed using a VSD. The number of applications of each device during ovariectomy, surgery time required for each ovary removal, total surgery duration, ovarian pedicle fat score, and intraoperative complications were recorded.

RESULTS

Both left and right ovaries had median pedicle fat scores of 2 (range, 1 to 3). To complete an ovariectomy, the median number of SCUD applications was 9 (range, 7 to 13) times; the VSD had a median of 10 (range, 5 to 18) times (P = .98). Median surgery times for the removal of 1 ovary with the SCUD and VSD were 96 seconds (range, 45 to 417 seconds) and 110 seconds (range, 42 to 164 seconds), respectively (P = 1). No intraoperative complications were associated with either device. Therefore, the VSD was not required for rescue in the SCUD group, and no conversions to open ovariectomy were necessary.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A standard approach laparoscopic ovariectomy performed with the SCUD was successful in our population of dogs, making the 5-mm SCUD safe for laparoscopic ovariectomy in healthy dogs, which provides a more affordable option for practitioners and clients.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine ideal insufflation pressures during transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) in canine cadavers for rectal submucosal transection and incisional closure.

ANIMALS

16 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. Urinary catheters were placed to measure intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). A single access port was placed to establish a pneumorectum. Cadavers were placed in insufflation groups of 6 mmHg to 8 mmHg (group 1), 10 mmHg to 12 mmHg (group 2), or 14 mmHg to 16 mmHg (group 3). Defects in the rectal submucosa were created and closed with a unidirectional barbed suture. Duration for each procedure and subjective ease of identifying the transection plane and performing incisional closure were assessed.

RESULTS

The single access port was successfully placed in dogs weighing 22.7 kg to 48 kg. The ease of each step of the procedure was not influenced by the insufflation pressure. The median surgical duration for group 1 was 740 seconds (range = 564 to 951 seconds), 879 seconds (range = 678 to 991 seconds) for group 2, and 749 seconds (range = 630 to 1,244 seconds) for group 3 (P = .650). The insufflation pressure increased the IAP (P = .007). Perforation of the rectum happened in 2 cadavers in group 3.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The duration of each step of the procedure was not significantly influenced by insufflation pressure. Defining the dissection plane and performing resection was more challenging in the highest-pressure group. Rectal perforation occurred only with the 14 mmHg to 16 mmHg insufflation pressure. Single access port usage with TAMIS may provide a readily available, minimally invasive approach for the resection of rectal tumors in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall with different diseases in dogs.

SAMPLE

72 gallbladders.

METHODS

Retrospective study of dogs that underwent cholecystectomy. Histopathological specimens of the gallbladders were reviewed. Histopathological diagnosis was made as gallbladder mucocele or cholecystitis, and cholecystitis was further categorized into chronic cholecystitis, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, and necrotic cholecystitis. The thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall was measured.

RESULTS

22 dogs were diagnosed with gallbladder mucocele without cholecystitis, 24 with gallbladder mucocele and cholecystitis, 20 with only cholecystitis, and 6 as normal. Histopathological subclassification of cholecystitis in 44 gallbladders led to diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis in 21 gallbladders, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis in 10 gallbladders, acute cholecystitis in 6 gallbladders, and necrotic cholecystitis in 7 gallbladders. The thickness of the entire wall of the gallbladder (P < .0001) and the thickness of the mucosa (P < .0001) and subserosa (P < .0001) were affected by the different disease processes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Layers of the gallbladder wall were affected by diseases present in the gallbladder. It resulted in a difference in the thickness of the wall of the gallbladder among the gallbladder diseases in this study. Histopathological changes should be taken into consideration before surgery while deciding what technique to use to perform a cholecystectomy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) estimated via evaluation of the arterial pressure waveform by a novel monitoring system (Edwards Acumen IQ sensor and HemoSphere Advanced Monitor Platform [HS-IQ]; Edwards LifeSciences) and measured by thermodilution (TD) in anesthetized, normovolemic, and hypovolemic dogs. To assess the agreement between the HS-IQ CO measurements in the radial artery and dorsal metatarsal artery.

ANIMALS

8 purpose-bred Beagles.

METHODS

Dogs were placed under general anesthesia. CO was measured via TD and via the HS-IQ at radial and dorsal metatarsal arterial catheters. CO measurements were obtained at 4 time points including normovolemic and multiple hypovolemic states. Paired measurements of CO were evaluated via the method of Bland and Altman with acceptable limits of agreement (LOA) defined as < 30%.

RESULTS

A total of 24 (dorsal metatarsal) and 21 (radial) paired measurements were collected in 8 dogs. The overall bias (CI) for comparison of TD to radial arterial HS-IQ CO measurements was −0.09 L/min. LOA and proportional LOA were −2.66 to 2.49 L/min and −140.72% to 104.94%. The overall bias (CI) for comparison of TD to dorsal metatarsal arterial HS-IQ CO measurements was −0.26 L/min. LOA and proportional LOA were −2.76 to 2.24 L/min and −135.96% to 93.25%. The overall proportional error for radial arterial was −17.9% and for dorsal metatarsal was −21.4%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CO measurements with the HS-IQ were easy to obtain but did not produce results within a clinically acceptable range for either measurement site, with a very wide LOA. The CO estimations from the HS-IQ are not appropriate for clinical use at this time.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether premature death occurred among dogs with nonmalignant splenic histopathologic findings after splenectomy for nontraumatic hemoabdomen.

ANIMALS

197 dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen that underwent splenectomy and histopathologic evaluation between 2005 and 2018.

PROCEDURES

Information was obtained from electronic medical records, dog owners, and referring veterinarians to determine patient characteristics, histopathologic findings, survival information, and cause of death. Dogs were grouped based on histopathological diagnosis and outcome, and median survival times (MSTs) and risk factors for death were determined.

RESULTS

Histopathologic findings indicated malignancy in 144 of the 197 (73.1%) dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen. Hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 126 dogs (87.5% of those with malignancies and 64.0% of all dogs). Nine of 53 (17%) dogs with nonmalignant histopathologic findings had an adverse outcome and premature death, with an MST of 49 days. Risk factors for this outcome included low plasma total solids concentration, an elevated hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score, and a medium or high hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score category.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study showed that there is a group of dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen due to splenic disease that have nonmalignant histopathologic findings after splenectomy, but nonetheless suffer an adverse outcome and die prematurely of a suspected malignancy. Further evaluation of potential at-risk populations may yield detection of otherwise overlooked malignancies.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association