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  • Author or Editor: Denis J. Marcellin-Little x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the outcome of locally administered antibiotic-impregnated poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel in dogs diagnosed with orthopedic surgical site infections (SSIs) and to identify risk factors for treatment failure.

ANIMALS

34 client-owned dogs diagnosed with an orthopedic surgical site infection treated with local antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed of dogs receiving antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel for an active orthopedic SSI between March 2018 and December 2020. The rate of successful infection clearance was calculated. Risk factors for failed treatment were evaluated with statistical analyses.

RESULTS

34 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin-impregnated P407 hydrogel (20 mg/mL) was implanted in all dogs. The rate of infection clearance was 77%. Each unit increase in the number of surgeries performed at a site before gel implantation decrease the chance of successful infection clearance by 25% (P = .005; unit OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.81). Presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance increased risk for treatment failure by 7.69 times (P = .042; OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.14). No adverse events related to gel administration were seen.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Treatment outcomes were negatively impacted by the presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance and by an increased number of surgeries before gel implantation. Local administration of antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel had a high success rate with no adverse effects in this population. Local antibiotic gel administration may improve treatment outcomes in dogs with complicated SSI.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To objectively measure the current demographic makeup of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) diplomates and to develop a survey tool to be used as a metric to measure future changes in the ACVS demographic profile.

SAMPLE

737 ACVS diplomates.

METHODS

A 14-item electronic survey was sent to 2,199 ACVS diplomates between August 25 and September 9, 2021, via email. Survey items included demographic information as well as perceptions about the ACVS and diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). Responses were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.

RESULTS

The survey response rate was 34% (737/2,199). The median age category among respondents was 45 to 54. The median years in practice as a diplomate was 11 to 15. The majority of respondents identified as white/Caucasian and heterosexual, with male and female respondents being similarly represented. Most respondents identified English as their first language. Few considered themselves first-generation college graduates or identified as disabled. Many respondents considered DEI to be an important initiative to promote in the ACVS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that the majority of ACVS respondents are supportive of DEI efforts. This study also serves as an objective analysis that can be reassessed in the future to determine the success of such initiatives.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate the effects of the chondrodystrophy-associated FGF4L2 retrogene on intervertebral disc (IVD) calcification and vertebral geometry.

ANIMALS

22 Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTR) with no FGF4L2 retrogene (n = 7, wild-type dogs), 1 retrogene copy (8, heterozygous dogs), or 2 retrogene copies (7, homozygous dogs).

PROCEDURES

Computed tomography (CT) scans of the vertebral column were analyzed using computer-aided design (CAD) software. IVD calcification, vertebral column length, and vertebral geometry of the third cervical (C3), 13th thoracic (T13), and first lumbar (L1) vertebrae were compared.

RESULTS

IVD calcification was not found in wild-type dogs. IVD calcification was more frequent in homozygous dogs than heterozygous (P = .008) or wild-type dogs (P < .001) and in heterozygous dogs compared to wild-type dogs (P < .001). Four IVDs were subclinically herniated in 3 dogs (2 homozygous, 1 heterozygous). Calcified IVD had a greater volume and surface area in heterozygous dogs than homozygous dogs. C3 vertebral canal height-to-width ratio was greater in homozygous dogs than heterozygous dogs (P = .044) and wild-type dogs (P = .010).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IVD calcification and vertebral geometry can be analyzed using CAD software. The presence of 1 or 2 FGF4L2 copies in the absence of the FGF4L1 retrogene has an additive effect on the number of calcified IVD and a minor effect on vertebral geometry in NSDTR dogs. Data support the use of FGF4L2 phenotyping to reduce clinical disease in segregating breeds and to monitor the introduction of wild-type alleles into fixed breed populations.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine whether dogs with well-functioning orthopedic metal implants can develop metal reactivity.

SAMPLE

Client-owned dogs that had tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or total hip replacement (THR) implants for 12 months or more and control dogs with no implants.

PROCEDURES

Lymphocyte transformation testing was performed by exposing peripheral blood lymphocytes to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), or a combination of these metals. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed with flow cytometry. Lymphocyte stimulation indexes (SIs) were calculated. A SI > 2 was considered reactive. Median SIs of dogs in response to metal exposure were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Samples from 10 dogs with TPLO, 12 dogs with THR, and 7 control dogs were analyzed. Six dogs out of 22 with metal implants had a reactive SI to 1 or more metals, while 2 of 7 control dogs had a SI > 2 when exposed to nickel only. When all metals were considered, no differences in metal reactivity were found between TPLO, THR, and control groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Metal reactivity is present in dogs and can be identified using lymphocyte transformation testing. Reactivity to Ni is present in dogs with and without metal implants. Reactivity to Co and Cr occurs in some dogs with metal implants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare osteoarthritis scores assigned through radiographic evaluation of 18 anatomic regions in the elbow joint with scores assigned through evaluation of 3-D maximum intensity projection (MIP), 3-D surface rendering (TSR), and multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) CT images, and to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement of radiographic and CT scoring.

SAMPLE

Radiographic and CT images of 39 elbow joints in 20 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Images were anonymized and graded independently by 5 observers. One observer graded 12 elbow joints 3 times. Intraobserver consistency and repeatability, interobserver agreement, consistency among methods, and bias between methods were calculated.

RESULTS

The most severe changes were observed at the proximal aspect of the anconeal process, and the medial and cranial aspects of the medial coronoid process. Intraobserver consistency was moderate or better for 11/16 regions with MIP images, 11/16 regions with TSR images, 17/18 regions with MPR images, and 14/18 regions with radiographic images. Interobserver agreement was moderate or better for 5/16 regions with MIP images, 9/16 regions with TSR images, 12/18 regions with MPR images, and 6/18 regions with radiographic images. Mean scores from CT-based methods were higher than mean radiographic scores.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assessments of osteoarthritis severity in the elbow joints of dogs obtained by examining radiographic images were generally consistent with assessments obtained by examining CT scans. MPR scores were more consistent and more comparable to radiographic scores than were MIP or TSR scores.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research