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  • Author or Editor: Carolina H. Ricco Pereira x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare cardiac output (CO) measurements by transesophageal echocardiography (TEECO) and esophageal Doppler monitor (EDMCO) with pulmonary artery thermodilution (PATDCO) in anesthetized dogs subjected to pharmacological interventions. The effect of treatments on EDM-derived indexes was also investigated.

ANIMALS

6 healthy male dogs (10.8 ± 0.7 kg).

METHODS

Dogs were anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane, mechanically ventilated, and monitored with invasive mean arterial pressure (MAP), end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO), PATDCO, TEECO, EDMCO, and EDM-derived indexes. Four treatments were administered to all dogs by randomization. Baseline data were collected before each treatment: (1) dobutamine infusion; (2) esmolol infusion; (3) phenylephrine infusion; and (4) ETISO > 3%. Data were collected after 10-minute stabilization and after 30 minutes of washout between treatments. Statistical tests were pairwise t test, Bland-Altman analysis, Lin's concordance correlation (ρc), and polar plot analysis with P < .05 set as significance.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD relative bias (limits of agreement) for TEECO was 0.35 ± 25.2% (−49.1% to 49.8%) and for EDMCO was −27.2 ± 22.5% (−71.4% to 17%) versus PATDCO. The percent error for TEECO and EDMCO was 27.6% and 44.1%, respectively. The ρc value was 0.82 for TEECO and 0.66 for EDMCO. TEECO and EDMCO showed good trending ability. EDM-derived indexes displayed significant changes specific to the drug administered (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For minimally invasive CO monitoring, TEE may provide more favorable performance than EDM in clinical settings; however, EDM-derived indexes yield valuable hemodynamic information that reliably follows trends in CO, thus supporting critical decision-making in canine patients.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine after IM administration in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult purpose-bred dogs (3 males, 3 females) with a mean ± SD body weight of 25.2 ± 1.8 kg.

PROCEDURES

Each dog received 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, IM. Heart rate and respiratory rate were counted via cardiac auscultation and visual assessment of chest excursions. Sedation was assessed utilizing 2 sedation scoring systems. Plasma concentrations were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations versus time data after IM dexmedetomidine were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis for extravascular administration.

RESULTS

Over the first 2 hours following IM injection of dexmedetomidine, plasma concentrations fluctuated in each dog. The geometric mean (range) maximum plasma concentration was 109.2 (22.4 to 211.5) ng/mL occurring at 20.5 (5 to 75) minutes, and the mean half-life was 25.5 (11.5 to 41.5) minutes. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline from 30 minutes to 2 hours postdexmedetomidine administration, and respiratory rate was significantly lower than baseline from 45 minutes to 1.75 hours. Dogs were significantly more sedated from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours postdexmedetomidine administration. Median time to onset of sedation was 7.5 minutes (range, 2 to 10 minutes), and median time to peak sedation was 30 minutes (range, 15 to 60 minutes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Variations in plasma concentrations occurred in all dogs for the 2 hours postinjection of dexmedetomidine at 10 µg/kg, IM. This was likely due to alterations in absorption due to dexmedetomidine-induced local vasoconstriction. Despite variable plasma concentrations, all dogs were sedated following IM dexmedetomidine administration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research