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  • Author or Editor: Bradley T. Simon x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate 2 doses of alfaxalone on cardiopulmonary parameters, temperature, sedation, endotracheal intubation, the incidence of muscle tremors, and radiographic positioning in Quaker parrots previously administered intranasal midazolam and butorphanol.

ANIMALS

10 healthy adult Quaker parrots (male = 5; female = 5).

PROCEDURES

A randomized, masked, crossover study was conducted where birds received midazolam (2 mg/kg) and butorphanol (2 mg/kg) intranasally 15 minutes prior to a low- or high-dose of intramuscular alfaxalone: 2 mg/kg (LDA) or 5 mg/kg (HDA), respectively. Heart (HR) and respiratory rate (RR), cloacal temperature, sedation quality, and ability to position for radiographs were recorded over time. The incidence of muscle tremors and the ability to intubate were recorded. Data were compared to baseline values and between treatments where appropriate. Significance was set at P < .05.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences in HR, RR, cloacal temperature, and sedation scores between treatments at any time point. Duration of time from midazolam-butorphanol administration to complete recovery from treatment administration was significantly shorter for LDA when compared to HDA (90 [60 to 195] vs 127.5 [90 to 10] minutes, respectively). Compared to baseline, sedation scores were significantly higher from T = 15 to 60 for LDA and from T = 15 to 75 for HDA. The incidence of muscle tremors was greater in HDA (9/10) than in LDA (7/10). All birds were successfully intubated and positioned for radiographs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The combination of intranasal midazolam-butorphanol and intramuscular alfaxalone at the doses examined was a safe and effective method for sedating Quaker parrots. LDA produced adequate sedation with a shorter time to recovery and with fewer muscle fasciculations when compared to HDA.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate skin perfusion in cats receiving dexmedetomidine compared to a placebo.

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult research cats.

METHODS

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study design was used. Two sites, the dorsal metatarsus (site: limb) and lateral flank (site: flank), were evaluated with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) at baseline and following administration of dexmedetomidine (1, 3, or 5 mcg/kg, IV) or a placebo (0.9% saline, IV). Mean speckle contrast (MSC), a surrogate for perfusion, was obtained from LSCI and compared between treatments. Heart rate, sedation score, and body temperature were recorded. Skin perfusion to the flank and limb, reported as MSC, was assessed via LSCI at baseline and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes posttreatment.

RESULTS

There was a significant decrease in heart rate (P < .001) in cats receiving 1, 3, and 5 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine compared to placebo. There was a significant increase in median sedation score at all time points postsedation compared to baseline (P < .018). Changes in MSC for the metatarsus were not significantly different between treatments at any time point (P = .12). For the flank, MSC was significantly higher for cats treated with dexmedetomidine compared to baseline (P ≤ .01). Skin perfusion to the flank decreased as early as 5 minutes posttreatment with dexmedetomidine and persisted for at least 15 minutes, regardless of dexmedetomidine dose.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dexmedetomidine decreased skin perfusion in cats, even at low doses. Veterinarians may elect for an alternative sedative medication when decreased skin perfusion is a concern.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize gastrointestinal transit times (GITTs) and pH in dogs, and to compare to data recently described for cats.

ANIMALS

7 healthy, colony-housed Beagles.

PROCEDURES

The GITTs and pH were measured using a continuous pH monitoring system. For the first period (prefeeding), food was withheld for 20 hours followed by pH capsule administration. Five hours after capsule administration, dogs were offered 75% of their historical daily caloric intake for 1 hour. For the second period (postfeeding), food was withheld for 24 hours. Dogs were allowed 1 hour to eat, followed by capsule administration. Both periods were repeated 3 times. The GITTs and pH were compared to published feline data.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD transit times in dogs for the pre- and postfeeding periods, respectively, were esophageal, 3 ± 5 minutes and 13 ± 37 minutes; gastric, 31 ± 60 minutes and 829 ± 249 minutes; and intestinal, 795 ± 444 minutes and 830 ± 368 minutes. The mean ± SD gastrointestinal pH in dogs for the pre- and postfeeding periods, respectively, were esophageal, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 1.0; gastric, 3.0 ± 1.4 and 1.8 ± 0.3; intestinal, 7.9 ± 0.3 and 7.7 ± 0.6; first-hour small intestinal, 7.6 ± 0.5 and 7.1 ± 0.4; and last-hour large intestinal, 7.9 ± 0.6 and 7.7 ± 1.0. The first-hour small intestinal pH and total transit times varied between dogs and cats depending on feed period (P = .002 and P = .04, respectively). Post hoc analysis revealed significantly shorter total transit times in dogs prefeeding (P = .005; mean ± SD for cats, 2,441 ± 1,359 minutes; for dogs, 828 ± 439 minutes) and postfeeding (P = .03; mean ± SD for cats, 3,009 ± 1,220 minutes; for dogs, 1,671 ± 513 minutes). Total transit time for dogs was also shorter pre- versus postfeeding (P = .003).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

GITT is faster in Beagles compared to cats, but gastrointestinal pH are similar when fed the same diet.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association