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  • Author or Editor: Amy S. Kapatkin x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the outcome of locally administered antibiotic-impregnated poloxamer 407 (P407) hydrogel in dogs diagnosed with orthopedic surgical site infections (SSIs) and to identify risk factors for treatment failure.

ANIMALS

34 client-owned dogs diagnosed with an orthopedic surgical site infection treated with local antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed of dogs receiving antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel for an active orthopedic SSI between March 2018 and December 2020. The rate of successful infection clearance was calculated. Risk factors for failed treatment were evaluated with statistical analyses.

RESULTS

34 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin-impregnated P407 hydrogel (20 mg/mL) was implanted in all dogs. The rate of infection clearance was 77%. Each unit increase in the number of surgeries performed at a site before gel implantation decrease the chance of successful infection clearance by 25% (P = .005; unit OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.81). Presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance increased risk for treatment failure by 7.69 times (P = .042; OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.14). No adverse events related to gel administration were seen.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Treatment outcomes were negatively impacted by the presence of multidrug or methicillin resistance and by an increased number of surgeries before gel implantation. Local administration of antibiotic-impregnated P407 hydrogel had a high success rate with no adverse effects in this population. Local antibiotic gel administration may improve treatment outcomes in dogs with complicated SSI.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study is to compare drilling variables and torsional mechanical properties of rabbit femora after bicortical drilling with a 1.5-mm standard surgical drill bit, acrylic drill bit, and K-wire.

SAMPLES

24 pairs of rabbit femora.

METHODS

After drilling under controlled axial displacement rate, each bone was biaxially loaded in compression followed by rapid external torsion to failure. Maximum axial thrust force, maximum drill torque, integral of force and displacement, change in temperature, maximum power spectral density of the torque signal, torque vibration, and torque and angle at the yield and failure points were collected. Pre- and postyield stiffness, yield and failure energies, and postyield energy were calculated.

RESULTS

The work required to drill through the cis- and transcortices (integral of force and displacement) was greater for the K-wire, followed by the acrylic and then standard drill bits, respectively. The K-wire demonstrated higher maximum torque than the drill bits at the ciscortex, and the force of drilling was significantly greater. The vibration data was greater with the acrylic and standard drill bits than the K-wire. There was no difference in torsional strength between drilling types.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Mechanical differences exist between different drill bits and K-wire and demonstrate that the K-wire is overall more damaging than the surgical drill bit.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine whether dogs with well-functioning orthopedic metal implants can develop metal reactivity.

SAMPLE

Client-owned dogs that had tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or total hip replacement (THR) implants for 12 months or more and control dogs with no implants.

PROCEDURES

Lymphocyte transformation testing was performed by exposing peripheral blood lymphocytes to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), or a combination of these metals. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed with flow cytometry. Lymphocyte stimulation indexes (SIs) were calculated. A SI > 2 was considered reactive. Median SIs of dogs in response to metal exposure were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Samples from 10 dogs with TPLO, 12 dogs with THR, and 7 control dogs were analyzed. Six dogs out of 22 with metal implants had a reactive SI to 1 or more metals, while 2 of 7 control dogs had a SI > 2 when exposed to nickel only. When all metals were considered, no differences in metal reactivity were found between TPLO, THR, and control groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Metal reactivity is present in dogs and can be identified using lymphocyte transformation testing. Reactivity to Ni is present in dogs with and without metal implants. Reactivity to Co and Cr occurs in some dogs with metal implants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare osteoarthritis scores assigned through radiographic evaluation of 18 anatomic regions in the elbow joint with scores assigned through evaluation of 3-D maximum intensity projection (MIP), 3-D surface rendering (TSR), and multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) CT images, and to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement of radiographic and CT scoring.

SAMPLE

Radiographic and CT images of 39 elbow joints in 20 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Images were anonymized and graded independently by 5 observers. One observer graded 12 elbow joints 3 times. Intraobserver consistency and repeatability, interobserver agreement, consistency among methods, and bias between methods were calculated.

RESULTS

The most severe changes were observed at the proximal aspect of the anconeal process, and the medial and cranial aspects of the medial coronoid process. Intraobserver consistency was moderate or better for 11/16 regions with MIP images, 11/16 regions with TSR images, 17/18 regions with MPR images, and 14/18 regions with radiographic images. Interobserver agreement was moderate or better for 5/16 regions with MIP images, 9/16 regions with TSR images, 12/18 regions with MPR images, and 6/18 regions with radiographic images. Mean scores from CT-based methods were higher than mean radiographic scores.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assessments of osteoarthritis severity in the elbow joints of dogs obtained by examining radiographic images were generally consistent with assessments obtained by examining CT scans. MPR scores were more consistent and more comparable to radiographic scores than were MIP or TSR scores.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research