To determine the following: (1) whether an irrigation solution that is hyperosmolar (HYPER) relative to synovial fluid decreases tissue extravasation during an arthroscopic protocol when compared to a relatively hypoosmolar solution, (2) the safety of a HYPER solution based on viability of joint tissues following joint irrigation, and (3) if the use of a HYPER solution decreases water content in stifle joint tissue.
8 adult horses.
A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed to compare lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS; 273 mOsm/L) and a HYPER (600 mOsm/L) irrigation solution for routine medial femorotibial joint (MFTJ) arthroscopy. Primary outcomes included quantification of periarticular fluid retention based on measured changes in defined stifle joint girth and ultrasonographic (US) criteria. Water content of tissue samples was assessed. The viability of articular cartilage was determined using a microscopic fluorescent cell viability staining system.
No significant difference in postprocedural joint swelling was observed between LRS and HYPER treatment groups. Percent increments in femorotibial joint dimensions (mean ± SD) were seen in both treatment groups based on US (LRS, 83.9 ± 84.6%; HYPER, 131.2 ± 144.9%) and caliper measurements (LRS 5.5 ± 4.3%; HYPER 7.5 ± 5.8%) (P ≤ .05). Chondrocyte viability and tissue water content were maintained in both treatment groups, and differences were not statistically significant.
Doubling the osmolarity of an irrigation solution used routinely for arthroscopy does not result in detrimental effects on chondrocyte viability or tissue water content. However, use of a relatively HYPER irrigation solution did not attenuate procedural tissue swelling of the equine stifle joint.