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, hyperglycemia creates an osmotic pull, which shifts water from the intracellular to extracellular fluid space. This shift in water dilutes the plasma sodium concentration, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia (also known as hypertonic hyponatremia). 1 , 2

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

regulated by multiple hormones. 19 Previous studies in other species, including cows, 20 , 21 dogs, 22 , 23 horses, 24 – 26 and rabbits, 8 have shown that derangements in blood glucose, including both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are associated with

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intact females. Twenty-two whole blood samples were collected from client-owned feline patients diagnosed with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or abnormal blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia). Another set of 38 whole blood samples

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to severity of neurologic injury or outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and 122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.

Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations recorded within 1 hour after admission were compared between case and control animals and among groups when case animals were grouped on the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.

Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly associated with severity of head trauma in dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs and cats with head trauma than in the control animals. However, blood glucose concentration was not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs and cats with head trauma may have hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was associated with severity of head trauma. However, degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma. Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1124–1129)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

BBIT Basal-bolus insulin treatment BGC Blood glucose concentration NPH Neutral protamine Hagedorn PPH Postprandial hyperglycemia SFC Serum fructosamine concentration Footnotes a. Humulin-N, Eli Lily and Co, Indianapolis, Ind. b

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate in vitro effects of ketosis and hyperglycemia on feline erythrocyte Heinz body formation, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, and D-and L-lactate production, and to identify potential metabolic mechanisms of oxidative stress in diabetic cats.

Design

Washed feline erythrocytes suspended in buffers containing normal or high glucose concentration were incubated with various concentrations of ketone bodies and tested at defined time intervals for Heinz bodies, GSH concentration, and D- and L-lactate production.

Animals

Three healthy female domestic cats.

Procedure

Erythrocytes were washed, suspended in buffers containing 5 mM glucose (simulates euglycemia) or 25 mM glucose (simulates hyperglycemia), and incubated with acetone (5 and 10 mM), acetoacetate (5 and 10 mM), or β-hydroxybutyrate (5 and 25 mM) for 24 hours at 37 C. Aliquots were stained with new methylene blue for Heinz bodies, and assayed spectrophotometrically for GSH and D- and L-lactate concentrations. Experiments were done in triplicate. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA with repeated measures.

Results

Neither high glucose concentration nor ketosis had direct effects on Heinz body formation or GSH values. Glutathione decreased to 89% of initial values over the 24-hour period in all samples. High glucose concentration also had no effect on erythrocyte D-lactate production; however, the rate of D-lactate production was slightly increased in samples containing 25 mM β-hydroxybutyrate. Linear L-lactate production confirmed metabolic viability of the erythrocyte suspensions. Samples in high glucose concentration produced L-lactate at a slightly higher (1.2×) rate than did samples in normal glucose concentration.

Conclusions

High glucose concentration and ketosis do not account directly for oxidative damage and glyoxalase induction in feline erythrocytes in vitro, although high concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate may stimulate D-lactate formation. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:463–467)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a single bout of exercise and increased substrate availability after exercise on gene expression and content of the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) protein in equine skeletal muscle.

Animals—6 healthy adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—The study was designed in a balanced, randomized, 3-way crossover fashion. During 2 trials, horses were exercised at 45% of their maximal rate of oxygen consumption for 60 minutes after which 1 group received water (10 mL/kg), and the other group received glucose (2 g/kg, 20% solution) by nasogastric intubation. During 1 trial, horses stood on the treadmill (sham exercise) and then received water (10 mL/kg) by nasogastric intubation. Muscle glycogen concentration and muscle GLUT-4 protein and mRNA content were determined before exercise and at 5 minutes and 4, 8, and 24 hours after exercise.

Results—Although exercise resulted in a 30% reduction in muscle glycogen concentration, no significant difference was detected in muscle GLUT-4 protein or mRNA content before and after exercise. Glycogen replenishment was similar in both exercised groups and was not complete at 24 hours after exercise. Horses that received glucose had significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for 3 hours after exercise, but no effect of hyperglycemia was detected on muscle GLUT-4 protein or mRNA content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under the conditions of this study, neither exercise nor the combination of exercise followed by hyperglycemia induced translation or transcription of the GLUT-4 protein in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1401–1408)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hyperglycemia can significantly affect POCG measurements. The effect of PCV on the correlations between POCG2 and ABA measurements was also assessed. It was hypothesized that the respective correlations between the POCG2-measured glucose concentrations in serum

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research