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enzymatic activity of activated MMP-9 —Enzymatic activity of stromelysin-activated bovine MMP-9 was measured by means of 2 methods, with gelatin fluorescein conjugate h as a high–molecular-weight substrate or synthetic fluorogenic peptide i,j as a low–molecular-weight

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentration was related to dam parity, calf birth weight, calf sex, season of calving, or fetal serologic recognition of common infectious agents that can be transmitted transplacentally. Materials and Methods Animals— One hundred seventy Holstein dairy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

vaccinations. Materials and Methods Animal care and diets —Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial crossbred (LuoDaoHong × White Lai-Hang) layer chickens with an initial body weight of 35.6 ± 0.6 g (mean ± SD) were used in this study. The experimental

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

healthy dogs. Materials and Methods Animals —Seven healthy male Beagles were used in the study. Body weight ranged from 10.5 to 15 kg, and dogs ranged from 2 to 4 years of age. All dogs were adequately vaccinated, and all had negative results when

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Thirty-two British crossbred beef heifers with a mean ± SD body weight of 170 ± 21.1 kg (range, 127 to 213 kg) were obtained from a commercial feedlot in southwest Kansas and transported approximately 529 km to the USDA Agricultural Research Service

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a live Salmonella choleraesuis immunizing strain, obtained by repeated ingestion and recovery through porcine neutrophils. The strain was tested in mice and in pigs. The vaccine was safe and effective in controlled experimental trials, using clinical, pathologic, and microbiologic criteria. Vaccinated pigs were able to maintain normal weight gains during the 4-week observation period following challenge inoculation with a high dose of a virulent strain.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Logistic regression was used to develop models predicting preweaning survival in 334 neonatal swine. Measured risk factors included birth weight, litter size (live born), dam parity, serum IgG concentration, serum elisa titers recognizing common gram-negative core antigens, and serum concentrations of the third component of complement. Larger birth weights were associated with increased probability of preweaning survival. The highest mortality was observed in litters with more than 12 pigs. Pigs with serum concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in the lowest stratum, < 20% adult pooled C3 standard (APC3), had reduced mortality, compared with high (> 38% APC3) and middle (20 to 38% APC3) groups. Associations between all other variables, including total serum IgG concentration and preweaning survival were not significant. Few pigs had hypogammaglobulinemia, < 3% of the study population had serum IgG concentrations < 1 g/dl. Of all measured variables, only birth weight and dam parity were significant predictors of preweaning gain. Larger pigs and pigs born to third or greater parity dams had more preweaning gain than other pigs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether recombinant porcine somatotropin (PST) or chromium picolinate (CrP) affected cytokine production and metabolism in swine after endotoxin challenge exposure.

Animals

20 Poland China × Landrace pigs, 5/group.

Procedure

Pigs were given CrP-supplemented feed at body weight of 20 kg; PST treatment began at 60 kg, and both treatments continued through body weight of 90 kg. At 90 kg, pigs were challenge exposed with 20 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg of body weight. Blood samples were obtained at various times through 24 hours after LPS challenge exposure.

Results

In all pigs not given PST, glucose concentration decreased 2 to 4 hours after LPS. In PST-treated pigs, blood glucose concentration was decreased at 6 to 8 hours after LPS. Plasma insulin concentration paralleled changes in glucose concentration. Nonesterified fatty acid concentration was high 2 to 24 hours after LPS in pigs not given PST and at 6 to 24 h in PST-treated pigs. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was high at 6 to 24 hours after LPS in pigs not given PST. The urea nitrogen values in PST-treated pigs were lower at all times. Serum aspartate transaminase activity was high 6 to 24 hours after LPS in pigs not given PST, whereas PST treatment prevented the increase in this enzyme activity. In untreated (PST) pigs, plasma bilirubin (total and direct) concentrations were high 4 to 8 hours after LPS and returned to normal at 24 hours. The PST- and CrP-treated pigs maintained normal plasma bilirubin concentrations. Interleukin 6 activity was unaffected by CrP and PST treatments. Treatment with CrP and PST decreased the tumor necrosis factor α response to LPS, compared with that in control pigs.

Conclusions

PST, and to a lesser extent CrP, provide protection against the adverse metabolic effects of LPS-induced septic shock. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58: 594–600)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To assess effects of vaccination against fescue toxicosis on weight gain, serum prolactin and cholesterol concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in mice fed an endophyte-infected (EI) or endophyte-free (EF) fescue diet.

Animals

50 six-week-old male BALB/c mice.

Procedure

Mice were randomly allocated to the following 5 groups: 1, vaccinated intraperitoneally with a bovine serum albumin-ergotamine (EG) conjugate and fed an EI fescue diet; 2, orally vaccinated with cholera toxin (CT) subunit B-EG conjugate mixed with free CT and fed an EI fescue diet; 3, not vaccinated and fed an EI fescue diet; 4, passively vaccinated with monoclonal antibodies specific for ergovaline (EV) and fed an EI fescue diet; and 5, not vaccinated and fed an EF fescue diet.

Results

Antibodies against EG and EV were in serum of mice of groups 1 and 4, respectively. Secretory IgA and IgG coproantibodies against EG were induced in mice of group 2. Weight increased in groups 1 and 2 and tended to be increased in group 4 versus group 3. Prolactin concentration was similar in all groups; cholesterol concentration was decreased in groups 1, 3, and 4, compared with group 5. Compared with that in group 5, serum ALP activity decreased in groups 1 and 4 and was further decreased in group 1, compared with that in groups 2 and 3; it was negatively correlated with anti-EG titer.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Induction of anti-EG antibodies and administration of EV monoclonal antibodies tended to increase short-term weight gain in this murine model of fescue toxicosis. However, systemic IgG antibodies against EG or EV antibodies were not protective against decreases in serum ALP activity and cholesterol concentrations. Clinical significance of decreased ALP activity associated with vaccination is unknown, but represents a worsening of a response often associated with fescue toxicosis in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1258–1262)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A study was conducted to determine the effect of monophosphoryl lipid A (mpl) and trehalose dimycolate (tdm) as adjuvants on the protective responses in balb/c mice vaccinated with Brucella abortus salt-extractable protein (bcsp) or proteinase-K-treated B abortus lipopolysaccharide (pklps). Mice were vaccinated with different doses of bcsp or pklps given alone or in combination with mpl or tdm. Mice were challenge-exposed 4 weeks later with virulent B abortus strain 2308. Two weeks after challenge exposure, the number of B abortus colony-forming units (cfu) per spleen, spleen weights, and spleen cell interleukin 1 production were measured. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations specific for vaccinal immunogens were measured before and after challenge exposure with B abortus.

Spleen weights and mean B abortus cfu per vaccine group were significantly lower in bcsp- and pklps-vaccinated mice, compared with those of nonvaccinated control mice. Monophosphoryl lipid A enhanced the suppression of splenic infection when given with the bcsp vaccine, but not when given with the pklps vaccine. Trehalose dimycolate had no effect on mean cfu when given with bcsp, but incorporation of tdm resulted in a significant increase in mean cfu when given with pklps. Spleen weights in bcsp- or pklps-vaccinated mice were not different when these vaccines were combined with mpl or tdm. Because of the wide variation in the results, we could not conclude that vaccination with bcsp or pklps alone, or in combination with mpl altered spleen cell interleukin-1 production in B abortus-infected mice. Increased host protection as defined by decreased cfu could not be related consistently to increased bcsp- or pklps-specific serum IgG or IgM antibodies introduced by any of the vaccines. These results do not eliminate a role for antibodies in the protection observed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research