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Flow cytometric and conventional fluorescence microscopic methods were compared to detect heterologous (rabbit) neutrophil antibody bound to equine neutrophils. Unfixed and paraformaldehyde-fixed neutrophils were treated with normal rabbit serum or various dilutions of an antineutrophil serum. The cells were then reacted with fluorescein conjugates of goat anti-rabbit IgG, staphylococcal protein A, and streptococcal protein G. Antibody binding was evaluated by use of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Unfixed neutrophils treated with normal rabbit serum did not fluoresce, whereas many of the fixed neutrophils had distinct cytoplasmic and some membranous (nonspecific) fluorescence. Unfixed cells treated with the antiserum had localized areas (capping) of intense membrane fluorescence, whereas fixed cells had bright uniform membranous fluorescence. The intensity of specific fluorescence varied with the antiserum dilution and the conjugate. On flow cytometry, over 80% of unfixed cells treated with antiserum dilutions up to 1:1,024, 1:2,048, and 1:256 fluoresced, respectively, with anti-IgG, protein-G, and protein-A conjugates. Fixed cells generally had similar percentages of fluorescent cells, but at a higher (1-step) antiserum dilution. It was concluded that flow cytometry is more sensitive than conventional fluorescence microscopy to detect antibodies associated with equine neutrophils.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Neutrophil migration through bovine teat tissues into the teat cistern, after endotoxin infusion into the teat cistern, was determined in vivo by 2 experimental procedures, indium-111 labeling of blood neutrophils, and obtaining multiple biopsy specimens from the teat cistern tissues. In both experiments, the number of leukocytes in the teat cistern flushing samples was continuously measured.

A lag phase of approximately 1 hour was required between endotoxin infusion into the teat cistern and the first observed neutrophil accumulation in the teat tissues. The rate of neutrophil accumulation in the teat tissues was highest between postinfusion (pi) hours 1 and 2, and the accumulation process ceased after pi hour 3. Neutrophils migrated toward the epithelium, and intraepithelial neutrophils were observed beginning approximately 2 hours after infusion, which coincided with the first influx of cells into the teat cistern. The cell influx into the teat cistern increased continuously up to pi hour 3, peaked between pi hours 3 and 5, and was close to preinfusion value at pi hour 22.

Use of indium-111-labeled neutrophils in the study of the inflammatory process provides a reliable noninvasive method to quantify cell migration in vivo. Use of biopsies allows quantification of the number of cells in different tissue areas, but has the disadvantage of being invasive. These 2 procedures complement each other, and could be of use in future studies of the local inflammatory process.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research