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the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation and was approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals of the College of Agronomical and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University (process No. 3.624/15). Eighteen adult Beagles (10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to achieve death consistently in cats; however, more research is needed before the recommendation is updated. A 2021 Veterinary Information Network 3 Quick Poll of 2,159 veterinarians found that some veterinarians administered smaller doses; however

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-associated right dorsal colitis. Although some veterinarians recommend limiting dietary intake (feeding minimal or no hay or grain) to horses affected with right dorsal colitis to rest the intestines, others recommend feeding a high-roughage diet to stimulate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether a detergent can prevent most of the early effects of IV infusion with Escherichia coli endotoxin (< 100 ng/kg of body weight) in horses: marked pulmonary hypertension, acute leukopenia, and fever.

Animals

8 healthy adult horses (4 male, 4 female), 415 to 615 kg.

Design and Procedure

Control and detergent experiments were performed in each horse while it was awake but sedated. In control experiments, 10 to 100 ng of E coli endotoxin/kg was given. In detergent experiments, 100 mg of detergent/kg was given 1 hour before injecting endotoxin, similar to the control experiments.

Results

In control experiments, pulmonary arterial pressure increased transiently over 40 minutes by 33 ± 8 mm of Hg (mean ± SD; P < 0.001), then returned to baseline. Circulating leukocytes decreased to 47 ± 19% (P < 0.02) of baseline by 1 hour after endotoxin, then increased above baseline by 6 hours. Rectal temperature increased by 0.7 ± 0.4 C (P < 0.01). In detergent experiments, the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure was much less than that in the control experiments (8 ± 7 mm of Hg; P < 0.001). Circulating leukocytes did not decrease, and the increase in rectal temperature after endotoxin was blocked.

Conclusions

This attenuation of the response to endotoxin may occur because the normal steps in the response of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (ie, endocytosis of endotoxin and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators) are altered by the detergent. This low-technology, inexpensive, and safe treatment could be an important new clinical tool for veterinarians in combating endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1063–1066)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarterpoint divisions) was performed on 66 Holstein dairy cows that began their second or later lactation in August, September, or October 1988. Cows’ body condition was scored beginning on postpartum day 4 (± 1) and subsequently at postpartum days (± 1) 18, 32, 46, 60, 73 and 87. Blood samples were obtained on the same dates. Reproductive health examinations were conducted by 1 of 2 veterinarians beginning at postpartum day 21. Reproductive performance was evaluated in relation to body condition score and serum urea nitrogen and cholesterol concentrations.

Number of days to first recorded signs of estrus and first breeding were not related to body condition score at calving, amount of condition loss, cumulative 80-day milk yield, or 305-day fat corrected milk yield. Cows that calved with body condition score ≥ 3.50 required more days to conceive. Cows losing > 0.75 points of condition had longer days of conception. Body condition score at calving and amount of condition lost were not related to services per conception or diagnosis of follicular cyst.

Cumulative 80-day milk yield was not related to days to conception or services per conception. Cows that produced = the mean 305-day milk yield required more services and had longer days to conception than cows that produced < the mean 305-day milk yield. Cows with diagnosis of ovarian follicular cysts had greater cumulative 80- and 305-day milk yields than did cows that were not diagnosed with follicular cysts.

Cows conceiving with ≤ 2 services did not differ in average daily milk production, body condition score, or serum urea nitrogen concentration from cows conceiving with > 2 services, but cows that conceived with ≤ 2 services had higher serum cholesterol values than did cows requiring more services.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

other animals, including horses, in numerous countries in Europe and South America. No FDA-approved medications are currently available to veterinarians in the United States to control pyrexia in horses. Unlike many other NSAIDs, dipyrone has minimal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

furo ) . Abstract in: Proceedings of the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians . Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians ; 2016 : 441 . 8395459 22. Fieten H , Hooijer-Nouwens BD , Biourge VC , et al. Association of dietary copper

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

interest of cattle producers to maintain the health status of animals in their herds. Veterinarians examine unhealthy animals and collect specimens for submission to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory to assist in determining a diagnosis. An appropriate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pretreatment and 10-second samples, respectively. The 10-second sample was collected to assess the highest plasma concentration of ICa. To determine eligibility for inclusion in the study, each cow was examined before treatment by the veterinarian on duty

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

kept at pasture all year-round, were supplemented with hay during winter, and received no concentrate feed. All episodes of acute laminitis had been diagnosed as such by an experienced veterinarian, either at the Royal Veterinary College or in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research