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Introduction Vet shopping is defined as the solicitation of controlled substance prescriptions from multiple veterinarians for the purpose of misuse. 1 Preventing this behavior is an important public health goal, as diversion of controlled

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

States Equestrian Federation and Fédération Equestre Internationale establish withdrawal times and SLODs for drugs in sport horses engaging in competition. To aid veterinarians treating horses in competition and those advising equestrian teams, the United

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine plasma tramadol concentrations in cats following a single dose of oral and transdermal formulations and the pharmacokinetics for and the concentration of tramadol in the transdermal formulation.

ANIMALS

8 healthy client-owned domestic shorthair cats.

PROCEDURES

1 cat was orally administered 1 dose of tramadol (2 mg/kg), and 7 cats received 1 dose of a proprietary compounded tramadol gel product (median actual dose, 2.8 mg/kg) applied to their inner pinnae. Plasma tramadol concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry at fixed times over 24 hours.

RESULTS

Plasma tramadol concentrations were undetectable or much lower (range, < 1 to 4.3 ng/mL) following application of the transdermal formulation, compared with those following oral administration (maximum plasma tramadol concentration, 261.3 ng/mL [at 4 hours]). Tramadol pharmacokinetics for the transdermal formulation could not be determined. Tramadol concentrations of the transdermal gel product exceeded the estimated label dose in all analyzed gel samples, with concentrations greater than the 90% to 110% United States Pharmacopeia standard for compounded drugs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Application of 1 dose of the proprietary transdermal formulation did not yield clinically relevant plasma tramadol concentrations in cats. Although this proprietary formulation is currently available to prescribing veterinarians, it should be used with caution.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To document tolfenamic acid disposition variables, identify its major phase-1 metabolite and fragmentation pattern, and establish detection time in urine after single IV bolus administration to make recommendations on avoiding violative residues in racing camels.

Animals

7 healthy camels (6 males, 1 female), 8 to 11 years old and weighing from 300 to 480 kg.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and at 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 hours after IV administration of tolfenamic acid (2.0 mg/kg of body weight). Urine samples were collected daily for 14 days after drug administration. Serum tolfenamic acid concentration was measured; limit of quantification was 50 ng/ml. A metabolite of tolfenamic acid in urine was isolated and identified, and its major fragmentation pattern was verified. Screening for tolfenamic acid and its metabolite in urine was performed.

Results

Mean ± SEM tolfenamic acid elimination half-life was 5.76 ± 0.26 hours. Total body clearance was 0.109 ± 0.011 L/kg/h, and steady-state volume of distribution was 0.68 ± 0.06 L/kg. Detection time for tolfenamic acid and its hydroxylated metabolite in urine after IV administration of a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was 5 and 7 days, respectively.

Conclusions

Camels eliminate tolfenamic acid mainly via metabolism more slowly than do cattle. The extrapolated dose regimen from cattle to camels appears inappropriate. Veterinarians are advised not to use tolfenamic acid in camels for at least 8 days prior to racing. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1451–1458)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-four healthy purpose-bred Beagles (age, 1 year 9 months; body weight, 8 to 15 kg) from a colony owned by the contract research facility were considered for inclusion in the study. Health status was assessed by a veterinarian. Dogs were excluded if they were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

antimicrobial concentrations over an extended period of time following a single administration is one of the best ways that a veterinarian can combat the development of antimicrobial resistance, apart from stopping the use of all antimicrobials in food animal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administration, and the elephants had ad libitum access to hay and water. Elephants were assessed as healthy on the basis of results of multiple physical examinations, CBCs, and serum biochemical analyses prior to drug administration by the attending veterinarian

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

achieved. However, this formulation can only be created in research laboratories and currently is not commercially available to veterinarians for routine treatment. Osmotic pumps are commercially available in a range of sizes based on volume of drug

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administered multiple NSAIDs sequentially. However, to the authors' knowledge, there have been no controlled studies testing this hypothesis. Therefore, this assumption causes a dilemma for many veterinarians who want to provide perioperative pain management

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

As such, it is reasonable to speculate that CBD may affect AED PK and vice versa when used in canine patients. Despite lack of FDA approval and that veterinarians cannot legally authorize use, there is increasing CBD use by the general public in their

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research