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having an ECUN infection. We also sought to evaluate the usefulness of PE in the diagnosis of ECUN infection. Materials and Methods Animals and sample collection —Blood samples from pet rabbits were requested from veterinarians within the United

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hematologic values and cellular morphologic features were evaluated for 38 healthy adult llamas. Reference ranges were determined for pcv, reticulocyte concentration, leukocyte concentration, and leukocyte differential counts. The approach used in this study was to focus on hematologic values that may be determined by use of techniques readily available to the practicing veterinarian and nonveterinary laboratory. Unique cellular morphologic features commonly observed and interpreted as normal included large granular lymphocytes, hyposegmented eosinophil nuclei, folded erythrocytes, and hemoglobin crystals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

Laboratory reference values, including hematologic and serum biochemical variables, and oropharyngeal bacteria flora, were determined in a group of captive Ball Pythons (Python regius).

Animals

20 adult Ball Pythons, weighing between 700 and 1,510 g, were allowed to acclimate at the recommended temperature range for the species (25 C nighttime, up to 30 C daytime), then were evaluated for internal parasites and treated with appropriate medication prior to the start of the study.

Procedure

Hematologic values determined included WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma protein, and differential cell count. Clinical biochemical analysis included determination of glucose, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate transaminase values. In addition to blood values, oropharyngeal swab specimens of the mouth were submitted for culture to determine the species of bacteria found in this population. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each hematologic and clinical biochemical value. Mean, SEM, and ranges were calculated.

Results

Hematologic values were similar to those reported in other snake species, except the hematocrit, which was lower. Clinical biochemical values different from those of other species were alkaline phosphatase activity, which was lower, and calcium and phosphorus concentrations, which were lower than values in other species. Bacteria isolated from the oropharynx were principally gram-negative organisms.

Conclusion

Reference intervals reported in this study are important for establishing a database for comparative studies of Ball Pythons in other locations and under different husbandry conditions.

Clinical Relevance

Accumulated laboratory reference values will assist veterinarians in assessing the health status of Ball Pythons. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1304-1307)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Recent evidence concerning the pathogenesis of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy indicated that low blood α-tocopherol values are a factor in the disease process. Variables that could be introduced by a veterinarian procuring, transporting, or storing samples were evaluated for effects on α-tocopherol concentration in equine blood. These variables included temperature; light; exposure to the rubber stopper of the evacuated blood collection tube; hemolysis; duration of freezing time, with and without nitrogen blanketing; and repeated freeze/thaw cycles. It was found that hemolysis caused the greatest change in high-performance liquid chromatography-measured serum α-tocopherol values, with mean decrease of 33% (P < 0.001). Lesser, but significant (P < 0.01) changes in serum α-tocopherol values were an approximate 10% decrease when refrigerated blood was left in contact with the red rubber stopper of the blood collection tube for 72 hours and an approximate 5% increase when blood was stored at 20 to 25 C (room temperature) for 72 hours. Repeated freeze/thaw cycles resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) 3% decrease in α-tocopherol values in heparinized plasma by the third thawing cycle. Freezer storage for a 3-month period without nitrogen blanketing resulted in slight (2%) decrease in mean serum α-tocopherol values, whereas values in serum stored for an identical period under nitrogen blanketing did not change. A significant (P < 0.001) mean decrease (10.3%) in α-tocopherol values was associated with freezer (− 16 C) storage of nitrogen blanketed serum for 6 months. Comparison of α-tocopherol values in serum vs heparinized plasma vs edta-treated plasma resulted in serum values being significantly (P < 0.001) higher (approx 4%) than values in either type of plasma. It was concluded that the optimal method for storing equine blood samples prior to α-tocopherol analysis is in an upright position in a refrigerator for up to 72 hours. If a longer period is needed prior to analysis, it is recommended that the serum or plasma be separated from blood, blanketed with nitrogen gas, and frozen in the smallest possible vial. The α-tocopherol in these samples should be stable at − 16 C for at least 3 months.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Council nutritional requirements for swine. 5 At selection, pigs underwent physical examination by a veterinarian (PC), which included palpation of joints. Pigs had to be free of clinical signs to be entered into either experiment. Pigs were assessed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Marko S , Luke K , When the tuberculin skin test fails: one institution's experience with the identification of TB in research cynomolgus macaques . Presented at: Association Of Primate Veterinarians 46th Annual Workshop ; October 24–27, 2018

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

variables. Although this method has been used to assess passive transfer status in neonates, 1,5,16,22,23 the requirement of a specialized laboratory and the long time before results are available to the veterinarian, as well the associated cost, could

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Veterinarians and Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians Joint Annual Conference, Dallas, September 2017. ABBREVIATIONS BG Blood glucose cVPBG Veterinary portable blood glucometer on canine setting fVPBG Veterinary portable blood

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Measurement of blood glucose concentration is a basic test commonly used for clinical evaluation of patients in veterinary medicine. Veterinarians ultimately make clinical decisions on the basis of blood glucose concentrations, so it is imperative

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

needle gauge at the discretion of the veterinarian or technician who collected the sample. Immediately after collection, blood was transferred to a lithium heparin–containing tube a and briefly mixed by inverting several times. Immediately after

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research