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trials designed to test the efficacy of interventions intended to decrease chronic pain in dogs with DJD have relied heavily on a combination of veterinarian assessment and gait analysis as measured by use of a force plate. 9–12 However, subjective

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

abnormalities, 6 but it is not known whether vitamin D plays a role in metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal hyperextension of camelids. Speculation by owners and veterinarians regarding environmental and hereditary factors associated with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. However, a reduction in JSW is considered a radiographic sign of femorotibial osteoarthritis in horses. 34 Accurate assessment of femorotibial JSW is particularly important because equine veterinarians still frequently rely on radiographic assessment of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. For each volume injected, 2 ultrasonographers (a veterinarian in an equine internship and a veterinarian in the second year of a radiology residency) performed ultrasonographic examinations with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer placed in a sterile

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

performed as early as 4 weeks of age, 21 veterinarians in the United States now recommend that gonadectomy in dogs and cats be performed between 6 and 9 months of age. 22 Incidentally, gonadectomy prior to the attainment of sexual maturity has been

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

by veterinarians have been used as outcome measures; improvement has been reported for some or all of these criteria for up to 7 months after treatment. 18–20 Quantitative outcomes measures (obtained by use of a PSW) have been used to evaluate dogs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administration of a placebo for the treatment of naturally occurring navicular disease, 6 osteoarthritis within the thoracolumbar vertebral column, 7 and osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joint. 8 Anecdotally, veterinarians have been administering

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

is constructed is subjectively viewed by knowledgeable individuals (eg, veterinarians) as covering the concept, such that each item in the questionnaire measures chronic pain in some way. Content validity 4,9–11 is related to face validity, being

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

as yearlings, and information was recorded concerning any joint injuries diagnosed by the trainer's veterinarian. Horses were eligible for inclusion in the case-control portion of the study if they had a carpal or fetlock joint injury diagnosed by a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

confirmed by observing resolution of lameness after administering 10 mL of local anesthetic solution (2% mepivacaine hydrochloride) into the affected TCJ. Radiographic examination of the affected hock joint by the referring veterinarian or at Helsingborg

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research