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compare the effect of position while controlling for replicates. When differences were significant in the ANOVA analyses, post hoc pairwise comparisons of results for the various positions were made by use of a paired Student t test and a sequentially

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

selected because of their similarities in size, body conformation, and good nature. Additionally, they are popular pets among students and staff at Tufts University, which was considered helpful in recruiting dogs for the study. Inclusion criteria included

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

veterinarians and not veterinary students. The investigators and only 1 veterinarian were present in the endoscopic room at a time. Each veterinarian was provided with a cadaver and asked to visualize the nasopharynx using the REA and ROSA with the same flexible

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

differences in CV were compared by means of Student t tests. The numbers of regenerated myofibers/10 hpfs, hyaline-degenerated myofibers/10 hpfs, and peripheral nerve branches/10 hpfs are reported as the median (IQR), and the intergroup differences were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

point were compared by use of a paired Student t test. Relative values for cytokine gene expression were not normally distributed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; P < 0.05) and therefore were analyzed by use of the Wilcoxon signed rank test with a theoretic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

TNF-α (50 ng/mL) for 48 hours. MUC5AC induction was assessed as described. This experiment was repeated 3 times with 3 equine donors. Statistical analysis —Data from the panel of equine cytokines were analyzed by use of a Student t test. The dose

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

boundary constraints. The Kenward-Roger method was used to estimate degrees of freedom and make corresponding adjustments in estimation of SEs. Model assumptions were evaluated with externally studentized residuals and were considered to be reasonably met

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that were normally distributed (duration of BAL, percentage BALF retrieval, percentage oxygen saturation, percentage lymphocytes, and percentage macrophages), comparisons between MA and SPA were performed with a paired student t test. For continuous

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

thickness, and CSA), the normalized response to each of 3 cycles of contractions to 10 −5 M acetylcholine, and the AUC for all concentration-response curves were compared between IPBs from heartworm-infected and control cats by use of unpaired Student t

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

differences over time. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate clinical signs over time, and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons test was used to compare scores of clinical signs on various days. The PaO 2 and Pa CO 2 values on days 0 and 7

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research