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individual time versus plasma concentration curves. Statistical analyses were carried out by use of a Student paired t test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test. To assess bioequivalence, a 90% confidence interval was calculated for AUC 0–∞ (log transformed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Chickens (n = 18), ranging in age from 30 to 50 weeks and in body weight from 1.1 to 2.1 kg, were anesthetized with isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled, and temperature was maintained at 40.1 ± 1.0 C. The minimal anesthetic concentration (mac) of isoflurane was determined by use of a bracketing technique based on purposeful movement in response to a toe clamp. After determining isoflurane mac in triplicate, birds were given a mu-opioid agonist (morphine, n = 9) or a kappa-opioid agonist (U50488H, n = 9). Determination of mac was repeated after each IV administration of agonist in progressive doses of 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg of body weight. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were recorded immediately before and after each injection. Control mac (mean ± SEM) was 1.24 ± 0.05% and 1.05 ± 0.03% for the mu- and kappaopioid agonist groups, respectively. Morphine and U50488H caused a dose-dependent decrease in isoflurane mac in all birds. Reduction of mac from control (mean ± SEM) was 15.1 ± 2.7, 39.7 ± 3.1, and 52.4 ± 4.0% after the 3 successive doses of morphine and was 13.3 ± 3.0, 27.6 ± 3.3, and 40.8 ± 3.8% after U50488H was given. Each opioid injection resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05, repeated measures anova) lowering of mac. Heart rate and MAP did not change significantly (P ≤ 0.05, paired Student’s t- test) after any dose of opioid. In conclusion, morphine or U50488H decreased isoflurane mac in dose-dependent manner without significant effect on heart rate and MAP.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

rank sum test for paired samples was used to compare data between different administration routes (PO vs IM) and between the 2 PO drug doses (1 vs 1.6 mg/kg). An independent-groups Student t test was used to compare the previously obtained NAG

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cells) was performed by use of a Friedman repeated-measures ANOVA. When necessary, multiple pairwise comparisons were performed by use of the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Comparison of minocycline trough concentrations in plasma and PELF was performed by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Student t test was used to compare platelet count, PT, PTT, and plasma fibrinogen concentration before and 4 hours after administration of EACA was completed. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to compare FDP values before and 4 hours

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

paired Student t test. Median number of PBMCs per milliliter at 0 and 72 hours was compared by use of the Mann-Whitney U test. Median values for CD4 + -to-CD8 + ratios were compared by use of the Friedman test. Significance for all statistical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

after each posttreatment ID histamine injection were performed by 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by a Dunnett post hoc test. Because right and left wheal areas did not differ significantly (Student t test, P = 0.97), the mean value for right

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the main study. The median body weight of the rabbits was 3.59 kg (range, 3.1 to 4.2 kg). All rabbits were transferred from a previous teaching protocol in which they received sedative drugs for student teaching of physical examinations. At least a 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

repeated with the new suspensions. A Student t test was used to compare mean percentage voriconazole-recovery values from suspensions prepared at different volumes and with different liquid vehicles; percentage recovery values were considered

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

± SD for swine within groups. All data transformations were performed by use of a spreadsheet. m Significance was determined by use of a 1-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test or Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks and the Dunn multiple

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research