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radiologist (NCN). Dogs with secondary IMHA or concurrent severe thrombocytopenia were excluded. Clinically normal dogs owned by hospital staff and veterinary students served as a control group. Adult dogs ≥ 1 year old with body weight ≤ 25 kg were recruited

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To generate reference intervals for ECG variables in clinically normal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS 100 clinically normal (51 young [< 10 years old] and 49 adult [≥ 10 years old]) wild-born chimpanzees.

PROCEDURES Electrocardiograms collected between 2009 and 2013 at the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Centre were assessed to determine heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, QRS axis, P axis, and T axis. Electrocardiographic characteristics for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and morphology of the ST segment, T wave, and QRS complex were identified. Reference intervals for young and old animals were calculated as mean ± 1.96•SD for normally distributed data and as 5th to 95th percentiles for data not normally distributed. Differences between age groups were assessed by use of unpaired Student t tests.

RESULTS Reference intervals were generated for young and adult wild-born chimpanzees. Most animals had sinus rhythm with small or normal P wave morphology; 24 of 51 (47%) young chimpanzees and 30 of 49 (61%) adult chimpanzees had evidence of LVH as determined on the basis of criteria for humans.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cardiac disease has been implicated as the major cause of death in captive chimpanzees. Species-specific ECG reference intervals for chimpanzees may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of animals with, or at risk of developing, heart disease. Chimpanzees with ECG characteristics outside of these intervals should be considered for follow-up assessment and regular cardiac monitoring.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

repeated-measures ANOVA by use of a commercial software program. d Differences between means were identified with a Student t test and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons between means, in which the error mean square term from the ANOVA was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

aortic stenosis, or other major systemic diseases were excluded from the study. Healthy cats that were owned by clients, faculty, students, and staff were considered eligible for inclusion in the study if the cats had no abnormal cardiovascular findings

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

National Veterinary School of Alfort with different levels of experience were involved in the study. Observer 1 (VD) was a fourth-year student with only 1 hour of training in BP measurements (DU and HDO) before starting the study. Observer 2 (NJ) was an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

distributed data were summarized as median and IQR. Comparisons were made between groups by use of Student t tests for parametric variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric variables. Estimated frequencies of select variables were summarized

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, excluded, and analyzed in a retrospective chart review of canine pulmonary stenosis. UF = University of Florida. Data collection Data were extracted by a fourth-year veterinary student and reviewed independently by a board-certified cardiologist

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Mean values were compared between antelope and sheep by performance of the independent samples Student t test, and values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Animals —The mean ± SD body weight of the 9 Tibetan antelope was 37

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, statistical analyses, and graphs were accomplished by use of commercial software. c–e Differences in variables between the 2 groups were identified by use of a Student t test when data were normally distributed or by use of a Mann-Whitney test when data

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed by use of a statistical program. e Normality of the data was evaluated by use of the Shapiro-Wilk test. Differences in PT, ZOC, and EMS for each catheter configuration were analyzed by use of Student

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research