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were tested by use of the Mann Whitney U test or Student t test. Callus area was analyzed via a 2-way ANOVA, and significance within each group was examined by use of the Tukey-Kramer test. Statistical analyses were performed with statistical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

score of 3 adjacent hpf. 29 Data handling and statistical analysis Data normality was determined with a Shapiro-Wilk normality test prior to application of a Student t test. Applicable test assumptions were met for t test analysis for the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

by use of the OARSI osteoarthritis scoring method 15 performed by 2 independent observers. Interobserver agreement was calculated by use of a weighted Cohen κ statistic for nonexpert observers (graduate students) and experts (pathologists and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, individual pairwise comparisons of least squares means were performed with a Student t test. For the histomorphologic analysis, reactions for the periosteal and endosteal surfaces were compared among treatment groups by use of a 1-way ANOVA. s When a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

was accomplished by use of the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Results Proteoglycan —Treatment of chondrocyte pellets with MPA at 0.05 and 0.5 mg/mL significantly decreased proteoglycan production by 37% and 75%, respectively, compared with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-measures ANOVA on ranks. Post hoc analysis was accomplished by use of the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Results Proteoglycan and MMP-13 —Treatment with glucosamine at any concentration had no effect on production of proteoglycan by chondrocytes as measured

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Statistical analysis —Differences in the angle between the axes and the value a/(a+b) in affected and unaffected dogs were evaluated with a Student t test. e A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Physical features —None of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

software. c Normality plots of the data were assessed. Analysis of box plots identified possible outliers, and extreme Studentized deviate tests were then performed to determine whether the value was > 2 SDs or < 2 SDs from the mean. When the value was > 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

values for bone area and bone amount, were compared by use of a Student t test. Correlations between delayed-image ratios and densitometric bone area and bone amount were examined by use of the Pearson correlation test. Power was set at 0.80, and values

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

use of a statistical software program. aa Significance was set at values of P < 0.05. Post hoc analysis was accomplished by use of the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Results were expressed as mean ± SE. Protein expressions of RANKL and OPG as well as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research